Arab Countries - Tunisia

Republic of Tunisia - Al-Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah [ Tunisiyya ]

The Country & People of Tunisia

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Tunisia, Fr. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2005 est. pop. 10,075,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa, bordered by Algeria (W), the Mediterranean Sea (N and E), and Libya (SE). Tunis is the capital. The Atlas Mountains in the north form a dry plateau that merges with fertile plains near the coast; in the south, below the Chott Djerid and other salt lakes, stretches the Sahara desert. The irregular coastline has several fine harbors. Agriculture, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing are all important to the economy. Wheat, barley, grapes, olives, sugar beets, citrus fruits, and dates are the leading crops, and petroleum and phosphates are the principal minerals. Manufactured goods include textiles, steel, and processed food. The population is largely Berber and Arab, and Islam is the dominant religion. Arabic is the official language, although French is widely spoken.

Settled in the 12th cent. BC by Phoenicians, Tunisia became (6th cent. BC) the center of the powerful city-state of Carthage, which was destroyed by Rome in 146 BC Taken by the Vandals (5th cent. AD) and the Byzantines (6th cent.), the Arabs conquered Tunisia in the 7th cent., and the Berber population was converted to Islam. The area came under a succession of Muslim rulers, reaching its peak under the Berber Hafsid dynasty (1230–1574). In the late 16th cent. Tunisia was seized by the Ottoman Turks, and as one of the Barbary States it became a stronghold of pirates, on whom the treasury depended for several centuries. European intervention began in the 19th cent., and in 1881 Tunisia became a French protectorate. Nationalist agitation, which first surfaced in the 1920s, became intense after World War II, and independence was achieved in 1956.

In 1957 the country became a republic, with Habib Bourguiba as president.

Under Bourguiba, who was elected president-for-life in 1975, Tunisia was a moderate Arab state, following a generally pro-Western foreign policy; support for a negotiated settlement with Israel strained the country's relations with its Arab neighbors, however. Domestically, Bourguiba emphasized modernization and planned economic growth.

In 1981 he authorized the legal formation of opposition political parties, indicating a possible shift in the direction of liberal democracy.

In 1987 Bourguiba was deposed, on grounds of senility, by Gen. Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. Ben Ali promised continued democratic reform, but he has ruled in an increasingly autocratic fashion and sought to crush Islamic-fundamentalist opposition. Under his regime the economy has seen significant growth as it has moved away from state control. In recent years relations with Libya have improved, and Tunisia joined with its North African neighbors in forming (1989) the Arab Maghreb Union.

Ben Ali was reelected unopposed in 1994 and against token opposition candidates in 1999.

A constitutional amendment, approved in 2002 in a referendum by a similar margin, permitted the president to run for more than two terms, and in 2004 Ben Ali was reelected with 95% of the vote; he again faced only token opposition. The landslide victories of Ben Ali and the government party have been marked by intimidation and credible accusations of vote-rigging.

In Dec., 2010, protests began against Ben Ali's government, sparked by the self-immolation of an unlicensed vendor who had his stall confiscated by police and fed by anger over high unemployment, rising prices, and government corruption. The demonstrations continued into the next month, and intensified after police killed a number of protesters.

Ben Ali's rule collapsed in a matter of weeks, and he went into exile in Jan., 2011. He later was convicted in absentia of embezzlement and other charges. An interim government was formed, with Fouad Mebazza, the parliament speaker, as president and Mohamed Ghannouchi remaining as prime minister. Though the cabinet included opposition members, the presence of former ruling party officials in the government was opposed by some, and the political environment remained unsettled. Ghannouchi resigned the following month and Beji Caid-Essebsi succeeded him. Elections for a constituent assembly (to write a new constitution and form an interim government) were planned for July, but subsequently they were postponed to October. The moderate Islamist Ennahda, led by Rachid Ghannouchi, won more than two fifths of seats in the assembly, with most of the rest of the seats going to several left-of-center parties and independents. Ennahda formed a coalition with secular opposition parties, and in December Moncef Marzouki of the Congress for the Republic party was elected president; Ennahda's Hamadi Jebali was appointed prime minister.

Secular parties concerned over persistent Islamist violence quit the government after the Feb., 2013, assassination of Chokri Belaid, a secular politician. Ennahda refused to back Jebali's attempt to form a technocratic government, and after he resigned, Ennahda's Ali Larayedh became (March) prime minister of a new government with two secular parties; several prominent cabinet posts went to independents. The assassination of opposition politician Mohamed Brahmi in July led to a new round of protests against the government and calls for a government of national unity. In September Ennahda agreed to talks on establishing a caretaker government and holding new elections, in October a road map for the process was finalized, and in Jan., 2013, Medhi Jomaa, a former industry minister, became caretaker prime minister. Also in January, the constituent assembly approved a new constitution, which reduced the powers of the president.

In the Oct., 2014, elections, Nidaa Tunis, an alliance of former Ben Ali officials, businesses, intellectuals, and unionists, won the largest number of seats, with Ennahda placing second. In the November presidential election, former interim prime minister Essebsi, the Nidaa Tunis candidate, placed first, and Marzouki second; Essebsi won the December runoff. In Feb., 2015, a government was formed that included Nidaa Tunis, Ennahda, and two additional parties, with Habib Essid as prime minister. Tunisian Islamist militants targeted tourist sites in deadly attacks (March, June) in 2015.


Copyright (c) 2012 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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About Tunisia

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Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
Focus OnLine Tunisia - From Carthage to modern Tunisia. General info, regions, tourism, cuisine, music, maps....
Good Morning Tunisia A specialized site in the centralization of the calls of public and private offers in Tunisia, as well as the new creations of appeared corporations in the JORT
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
Tunisia OnLine History, government, society, economy, culture, women, tourism, environment, news...., Al Khadra >
Tunisie.Com History, politics, society, economy, culture, women, tourism, environment, news....
Tunisie Photos, history, football....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

Historic Tunisia Hammamet, Sousse, Monastir, Port El-Kantaoui, Djerba, Matmata, Chott El-Jarid....
Ichkeul National Park A Natural World Heritage site
Kerkennah The Kerkennah Isles official web site....
Ras Jebel Photo gallery, history, music, news, sport
World Heritage Cities Kairouan - A dense network of through and dead-end streets
World Heritage Cities Medina of Sousse - Made up of tortuous streets and dead-ends
World Heritage Cities Medina of Tunis - Made up of a non-rectilinear network of streets, vaulted passages, alleys and dead-end streets

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World Paper Money Paper currency since 1939

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Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
Bourse de Tunis Access to accurate and up-to-date information
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tunis Organize business missions, supply of information or documentations....
FinAccess Financial and stock exchanges information in Morocco and Tunisia
International Labour Organization Information and key figures
Joint Tunisian-European Chambers of Commerce and Industry Developping commercial exchanges and industrial investments
Jurisite Tunisie Tunisian Legal Portal
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
Tunisian American Chamber of Commerce Access to accurate and up-to-date information
Tunisia and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
US Department of State Country commercial guide 2001 (pdf)
US Department of State Country reports on economic policy and trade practices - 1999
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
World Bank Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center
World Trade Organization - WTO Provides trade statistics, goods schedules, services schedules and MFN exemptions, trade policy reviews, dispute cases, and notifications


Banque de l'Habitat
Central Bank of Tunisia Economic and monetary information

Directories, Job Opportunities

Career Tunis Online recruiters

Investment & Promotion....

Export Promotion Center Provides support and assistance to Tunisian exporters and to their foreign counterparts
Industrial Land Agency (AFI) Institution to boost industrial investment
Invest in Tunisia Investment opportunities, key figures, foreign investment....
Association de la Foire Internationale de Sfax Organization of fairs and national and international specialized exhibitions
StelFair Business Gateway. The virtual fair for Tunisian products and services....
Tunisian Industry Portal Industry promotion agency
World Summit on the Information Society November 2005 - Bridging the digital divide
Zarzis-Djerba Free Zone Offers to investors a site equiped with all viabilities

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General Resources, Heritage....
Culture Tunis
Tunisian Association: Monuments and Sites Preservation of the national cultural personality

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Abd Hanafi The artist, paintings, gallery, exhibitions....

The Elevator Theatre
Familia Theatre
Ladybird Honeymoon Marionnette theatre

Bill Hocker Photographs Photo Album - Tunisia
Photos from Tunisia Photographs from tourists who want to place photographs of Tunisia in the Internet

Arab Film Distribution - Tunisia Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports

Music, Song & Dance....

Memoire Contemporary Dance

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info

Cultural Heritage Management and Valorisation Project
Observatoire National de la Jeunesse
Tunisian Community Center Portal hosted by the Association of Tunisian Americans. A virtual community center in form and function

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability

Coupedafrique African Cup 2004....

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Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
Faculte de Management et de Commerce International Tunis
TIME Universite
Universite du 7 Novembre Carthage
Universite Central
Universite Internationale Programs for both undergraduate and graduate students - Tunis
Universite Libre de Tunis
Universite Tunis Carthage

WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....

Institutions & Organizations

Bourguiba Institute of Modern Languages (IBLV) To teach modern languages and to conduct applied research in methodologies for teaching....
Institut Central de Formation Un institut de formation professionnelle en informatique et bureautique. Tunis & Gafsa
Institute of Development Finance of the Arab Maghreb Specialized in the area of banking and insurance
Institut Maghrebin des Sciences Economiques et de Technologie (IMSET)
Superior Institute of Sport and Physical Education (ISSEP Sfax) To boost the training of the executives and the scientific research

Research, Resources & Projects

Calculation El Khawarizmi Center for Computerization (CCK) Provide the necessary means to promote Scientific research
Centre de Calcul El Khawarizmi Le C.C.K , en tant que principal opérateur technologique pour l’enseignement supérieur et la recherche
EduNet Tunisian Educational Portal
Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology in Tunisia For Students and Teachers, events, activities....

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Ancient & Modern....
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Post-Cards Of Tunisia Collection of post-cards from Tunisia between 1910 and 1930 under the French colonization
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Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Amnesty International News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Human Rights in Tunisia Promote human rights, be they political, civil, social, economic or cultural
Human Rights Watch Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

Rassemblement Constitutional Democartique Le Partie du Changement

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Constitution Background, history & news

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Newspapers, Magazines....
Al-Horria Daily newspaper
Al-Sahafa Daily newspaper
Al-Wahda Weekly newspaper
Le Renouveau Quotidien Tunisien d'informations generales
Tunisian Dailies La Presse Al-Sahafa >. (pdf)

OnLine News, Newsletters, News Agencies....

Akhbar Tunis News online
AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
La Press Online news
Washington Post News & references
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

Radio Tunis Looking for the latest news from Tunisia, listen to Tunisia National Radio
Tunisia TV Journal, events, documentaries, sport....

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....

TunisieInfo Sources d'information, documents, quotidiens, magazines, radio & TV, bulletins....

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Government & Organizations....

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Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1943 (with pictures)
Tunisian Government Official site

Agence Nationale de Certification Electronique (ANCE)
National Agency of Environment Protection
Nationales Archives of Tunisia A valuable source for scientific research and an integral part of the national heritage
National Institute for Standarization and Industrial Property
National Statistics Council Statistical data concerning the economic, social, environmental and other fields
Office des Tunisiens a l'Etranger (OTE)
Office for Upgrading To inform the various partners on the upgrading process, regulations and procedures
Topography and Cartography Office (TCO) Real estate registration, allotment and other various activities
Tunisian National Social Security Fund Manages a number of social security schemes

Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities

Agence Tunisienne d'Internet
Elgazala Pole The Technological City of Communications
Industries Chimiques du Fluor (ICF) Producers of aluminium fluoride
Packaging Technical Centre - PACKTEC A national central point for all economic operators concerned with packaging
Poste Tunisienne

Centers, Institutions, Societies....

Aouledouna Association of Handicapped Children Parents
Association Féminine Tunisie 21
Basma Association for the Promotion of Employment for the Disabled
Institute for Health and Safety in the Workplace (ISST) To promote occupational health and safety
Institute for the Promotion of the Handicapped
National Pension and Social Benefit Fund Social Security in the public sector
National Solidarity Fund To endow disadvantaged regions with basic infrastructure
National Union of Tunisian Women Promoting women's interests in all areas of society, including business, culture and science
Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas -RAC/SPA U.N. environment programme. Mediterranean action plan
Tunis Center for Conciliation and Arbitration Administer mediation, conciliation and arbitration procedures for the settlement of disputes
Tunisia International Centre for Environmental Technologies Protection and management of natural resources
Tunisian Journalists Association Report on press situation in Tunisia
Tunisian Mothers Association Conducts operational researches and studies on mothers' conditions, children and the family
Tunisian Society of Psychiatry Preparing for the IXth Panarab Congress of psychiatry
Tunisian Union of the Industry, Trade and Craft Organize missions of partnership

Foreign Entities

British Embassy Consular, commercial, news, visa....
Delegation of the European Commission in Tunis
South African Embassy General, economic, travel, consular info
US Embassy US mission, consular services, latest news, US policy, journals, articles....

British Counsil Library and information services, events, news, conferences, learn English
United Nations Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le developpement
United Nations Information Center Tunis
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

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Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
Nouvel Air Tunisie Une compagnie a vocation exclusivement charter
Tunis Air

Tunisian Civil Aviation and Airports Authority (OACA) Administration, flight schedules, airports....

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

Choose Tunisia Hotels, flights, tours, car hire, property , business, resturants, events, history, About Tunisia
Carthage Tours Regular Tour Carthage, archaeological Tour, berber Tracks....
Hedfi Travel Tunisia Vacation packages, travel Tunisia with nomads, acyivities....
Ifriqiya Travel Tunisia with passion.... Discover Tunisia, stays, tours, water therapy....
Tunisia.Com A comprehensive guide: Tunisian business, culture, travel, tours and shopping
Tunisian Travel Service Tourisme local, excursions, sejours hôtels....
Tourism Tunisia Travel & tourism guide from the Tunisian National Tourism Office
Visit Tunisia A certain concept of hospitality establishing a customised and detailed tourism

Adventures of Tunisia Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
Lonely Planet Travel information, maps, photos, background historical and cultural information
Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
Travel Guide General & travel info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
Travel Puppy Tunisia travel information & guide
World Travel Guide Travel information, regions & places....

Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....

Abou Nawas Hotels Tunis, Tabarka, Gammarth, Hammamet, Sousse
Abou Nawas Hotel Tunis - On the edge of the business and banking district
Le Palace Carthage - Conceived in the biggest tradition of luxury and elegance
Marhaba Hotels Situated between Sousse and Port El-Kantaoui....
Pansea Ksar Ghilane A shimmering mirage awaits you in the Tunisian Sahara
Renaissance Tunis Offering proximity to the antique sites of Carthage
Thalassa Palace Nahrawess Hotel and holiday resort
Ulysse Palace & Thalasso Djerba
Yadis Hotels Tunis, Hammamet, Djerba....

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Hotels Travel Hotels directory & tourist information
Midoun Hotels Presents the best hotels, beach resorts, ski resorts, and spa resorts
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Travel to Tunisia Hotel, weather, map....
Tunisia Hotels Travel Guide Offers hotels and resorts online reservations

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Tide Calendar Tide times, sunset, sunrise and global position
Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
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Gateways to Tunisia

Carthagus Gateway, search engine....
Nadhour Tunisie Gateway, horoscopes, gastronomy....
Winoo Gateway, search engine, directory....
Ya Tunis Gateway, search engine, directory....

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