Arab Countries - Egypt

Arab Republic of Egypt - Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

The Country & People of Egypt

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Egypt, Arab. Misr, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2005 est. pop. 77,506,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea (N), Israel and the Red Sea (E), Sudan (S), and Libya (W); the Sinai peninsula, the only part of Egypt located in Asia, is separated from the rest of the country by the Suez Canal. Major cities include Cairo (the capital) and Alexandria. The principal physiographic feature is the Nile R., which flows the length of the country from south to north and separates the Libyan (Western) and Arabian (Eastern) deserts that comprise 90% of the land area. Bordering the Nile between Aswan and Cairo are narrow strips of cultivated land, home of the vast majority of Egypt's inhabitants. Although the country's industrial base increased considerably in the 20th cent., the Economy has been severely strained by Egypt's limited farmland and its large and rapidly growing population. Agriculture, which Employs about 40% of its population, depends on the Nile for its fertility. Completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 greatly increased arable land, which still constitutes less than 5% of Egypt's total land area. Cotton is the leading cash crop. Major manufactures include refined oil, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods. The Suez Canal and tourism are sources of foreign Exchange. Egypt's inhabitants are mainly a complex racial mixture, descended from the ancient Egyptians, Berbers, sub-Saharan Africans, Arabs, Greeks, and Turks. The majority are Sunni Muslims, but there is a substantial minority of Coptic Christians. Arabic is the official language.

Ancient Egypt
Egyptian civilization, one of the world's oldest, developed in the valley of the Nile over 5,000 years ago. The rival kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were united as a centralized state 3200 BC; by a king named Menes, who Established his capital at Memphis. A high culture developed Early, and the use of writing was introduced. During the Old Kingdom (3110–2258 BC;) Egyptian culture and commerce flourished, and the great pyramids were built. Its fall introduced a period of anarchy, which Ended 2000 BC; with the Establishment of the Middle Kingdom, with its capital at Thebes. Civilization again flourished until in 1786 BC; weak rulers allowed the country to pass under the rule of foreign nomads, known as the Hyksos. The Hyksos were Expelled 1570 BC;, and the New Kingdom was Established. During the XVIII dynasty (1570–1342 BC;) ancient Egyptian civilization reached its zenith; a vast Empire was Established and Thebes and Memphis became the political, commercial, and cultural centers of the world. After the XX dynasty (1200–1085 BC;) Egypt came increasingly under foreign domination, with periods of rule by Libya, Sudan, Assyria, Nubia, and Persia. Following a brief reestablishment of native power in 405 BC;, Egypt fell without a struggle to Alexander the Great in 332 BC; After Alexander's death (323 BC;) Egypt was inherited by his general, Ptolemy, who founded the dynasty of Ptolemies and under whom the new city of Alexandria became the intellectual and religious center of the Hellenistic world. The Ptolemies maintained a formidable Empire for more than two centuries until, weakened by internal dynastic disputes, Egypt fell to Rome in 30 BC; Christianity was readily accepted in Egypt, which became part of the Byzantine Empire about AD; 395. With the Arab conquest (639–42) Egypt became an integral part of the Muslim world.

Modern Egypt
After 500 years as part of the caliphate, Egypt was seized by the Mamluks in 1250 and the Ottoman Turks in 1517. The first close contact with the West occurred in 1798, when French forces under Napoleon occupied the country; they were Expelled in 1801 by combined Ottoman and British troops. In 1805 Muhammad Ali, a common soldier, was appointed pasha of Egypt; under his rule the foundations of the modern state of Egypt were Established. The construction of the Suez Canal (1859–69) put Egypt deeply into debt, and, although nominally still part of the Ottoman Empire, the country was forced to appoint a French-British commission to manage its financial affairs. The British consolidated their control between 1883 and 1907, and during World War I, when Turkey joined the Central Powers, Great Britain declared Egypt a British protectorate, which Effectively persisted for some years after independence in 1923.

Independent Egypt
Egypt bitterly opposed the UN partition of Palestine in 1948 and played an important role in the Arab-Israeli Wars that followed.

In 1952 the Egyptian army deposed King Farouk in a coup; a republic was established in 1953, and Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser became president (1954).

For a brief period Egypt and Syria merged (1958) in the United Arab Republic, then were joined by Yemen in the United Arab States; the union was dissolved in 1961. Inaugurating a program of economic and social reform, modernization of the army, and construction of the Aswan High Dam, Nasser, with the aid of the USSR, strove to make Egypt the undisputed leader of the Arab world. His rallying cry was denunciation of Israel; in 1967 Egypt lost much territory in the Six-Day War, which also shattered its economy and armed forces.

Nasser died in 1970 and was succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat, who regained some of Egypt's lost territory in the Yom Kippur War (1973) and reversed a 20-year trend by ending Soviet influence and seeking closer ties with the West.

In 1977 Sadat angered his Arab allies by traveling to Jerusalem as a conciliatory gesture to Israel; the two nations signed a peace treaty in 1979.

In 1981 Sadat was assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists, and Hosni Mubarak, who pledged to continue Sadat's policies, became president. The Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai and its return to Egypt, which began in 1979, was completed in 1982.

Egypt provided troops for the U.S.-led coalition in the Persian Gulf War (1991). In the late 1980s and the 1990s Muslim fundamentalists increasingly opposed the government, and some 1,200 people were killed by militants between 1992 and 1997.

In 1999, Mubarak was returned to office for a fourth six-year term. Poverty is the nation’s most pressing problem, but the government has failed to undertake significant economic reforms; social inequities have heightened societal tensions, and authoritarian rule has fostered corruption.

Islamic militancy and terrorism, most dramatically demonstrated in recent years by the Oct., 2004, July, 2005, and Apr., 2006, bombings of several Sinai resorts, also remain challenges to Egypt’s government, as do liberal reformers who have become more vocal and move visible in calling for constitutional reform.

In Feb., 2005, Mubarak called for a constitutional amendment to permit the direct election of the president from among a multiparty slate, but the restrictions in the amendment on who might run prevent the contest from being open to all challengers. After passage by parliament, the amendment was approved (May) in a referendum whose results were denounced as fraudulent by the opposition. At the same time, however, the government was trying Ayman Nour, a leading opposition figure, on charges that his lawyers claimed were fabricated in an attempt to derail his presidential candidacy. In the election in September, Mubarak was reelected and Nour placed second. Observers said that the election was marred by irregularities but also that they would not have affected the result; the turnout was only 23% of the nation's voters. In the subsequent (November-December) parliamentary elections the government secured a more than two thirds of the seats, but candidates aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood won roughly a fifth of the seats a record number. The voting was marred by violence and intimidation that seemed clearly directed by the government at opposition voters.

In Dec., 2005, Nour was convicted on charges related to the forgery of signatures on electoral petitions, which most nongovernment observers regarded as improbable, and was sentenced to five years; he was released for health reasons in Feb., 2009.

In 2006 there was increasingly vocal public support for establishment of a truly independent judiciary, as protestors rallied in in May support of two judges who had called for reform and faced dismissal for having criticized the presidential election. the police violently suppressed the rallies, however, and the reforms that were passed in June were widely criticized as inadequate.

In Mar., 2007, a referendum approved amendments to the constitution, earlier approved by parliament, that were generally regarded as antidemocratic (one of the amendments replaced judicial supervision of elections with an electoral committee, another banned religious-based parties). The government claimed that roughly a quarter of the electorate voted, but several independent groups estimated the turnout at roughly 5%, and they and opposition groups accused the government of vote rigging. The following month Amnesty International accused Egypt of systematic human-rights abuses and as acting as an international center for abusive interrogation and prolonged detention in the "war on terror." Elections in June for seats in parliament's upper house, which the governing party handily won, were marred by police interference and vote rigging. Subsequently in 2007 the government launched a crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood.

The June, 2010, upper house elections were also marred by electoral abuses; nearly all the seats were won by the governing party. The 2010 upper house (June) and subsequent lower house (November–December) elections were also marred by electoral abuses and irregularities; most of the seats were won by the NDP, and nearly all opposition parties called for a boycott of the second round of the lower house elections.

In early 2011, young Egyptians, inspired by events in Tunisia that led to the ouster of its entrenched president, mounted massive nonviolent anti-Mubarak demonstrations, most prominently in Cairo but also in other cities. Over 18 days the protesters won the support of major opposition figures and groups while surviving a number of government moves against them, including violence that killed more than 800 people and injured several thousand. The army largely remained on the sidelines and, in the face of growing protests, finally forced Mubarak to resign.

Slow progress toward reforms and a new government—elections were ultimately scheduled for Nov., 2011–Feb., 2012—and concerns about the military government, led at times in the second half of 2011 to significant new protests in Cairo and other cities. In August, Mubarak was put on trial on charges of corruption and of ordering the killing of protesters. The elections for the lower house of parliament resulted in a significant victory for the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice party (FJP).

Mohamed Morsi, the Muslim Brotherhood candidate, was elected president after a runoff in late June, 2012. Before the runoff, however, the supreme court ruled that the newly elected parliament had to be dissolved because many members had been elected illegally, and the military government subsequently declared a new interim constitution that severely restricted the president's powers and reserved legislative powers to the military government until after a new parliament was elected. In July, President Morsi decreed that parliament be recalled, but the supreme court overturned his decree. In August a new government, consisting mainly of Islamists and technocrats, was appointed by Morsi. Morsi also ordered the retirement of Tantawi and the army chief of staff, ended the restriction on presidential powers, and assumed legislative powers.

In November a new presidential decree gave Morsi essentially unchecked power, sparking demonstrations against him by liberals and others who saw him as a new dictator and clashes between them and Morsi's supporters; parts of the decree were later rescinded.

Jan., 2013, was marked by violent protests, and the following month Morsi called for parliamentary elections in April. Meanwhile, the constitutional court rejected parts of the election law, and then the secular parties announced a boycott of the vote. In March, however, the elections were canceled as a result of a court decision that returned the election law to the constitutional court for review. In April, Islamists sought to force the retirement of older members of the judiciary, who were seen as opponents of Islamist rule; this led to new protests and tensions.

The constitutional court ruled in June that the interim parliament and the constitutional assembly had been illegally elected, but it left the constitution in effect. Massive demonstrations against Morsi in late June and early July, and clashes between Morsi opponents and supporters, led to a military ultimatum calling for the government and opposition to resolve the crisis; subsequently the president was ousted by the military.

Muslim Brotherhood supporters protested Morsi's overthrow, leading to recurring clashes with security forces; in August, hundreds died and several thousand were injured when two pro-Morsi protest camps were stormed. Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested and charged with inciting violence; the organization was later banned. Islamist militant attacks on security forces and on Coptic churches also increased in the aftermath of Morsi's ouster. A number of prodemocracy activists were also arrested and jailed. A new constitution, which drafted in Dec., 2013, and again preserved the military's powers and independence, was approved by voters in Jan., 2014; the turnout was somewhat larger (38.6%) but nearly all votes (98%) were in favor of the constitution.

In Mar., 2014, Sisi resigned from the army and the cabinet in order to run for president. He overwhelmingly won the May election against weak opposition, but many Islamists and liberal and secular activists boycotted the vote. In the delayed parliamentary elections, which were finally held in Oct. and Dec., 2015, individuals and parties aligned with the president won a significant majority of the seats; turnout was relatively low in both rounds.


Copyright (c) 2012 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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About Egypt

General Information Also see Travel
All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life....
AME Info Geography, people, government, economy, communication, transportation
ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information....
BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
Focus OnLine Egypt - The Land of Pharaohs. general info, regions, tourism, cuisine, music, maps....
Geographia.Com Exploring Egypt, location, geography, climate, history, culture
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Little Horus Kids Web Site - About Egypt today, where to go, history, Fun Corner Club
Love Egypt Egypt, its ancient history, prehistory, modern history, articles, tips, fantastic Videos and great music....
MidEast.Com Good info + Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan, Sharm El-Sheikh, Fayoum, Mersa Matrouh, Luxor, Minya
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Egypt....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

El Gouna A resort town nestled between sienna mountains and azure waters of the Red Sea
Hurghada One of the best Egyptian tourist destinations
Matrouh Economic , tourist , historical and archaeological information, investment chances, businesmen services
Port Said Jewel of the Suez Canal
Red Sea Red Sea, Dangerous Animals, Snorkelling And Scuba, Underwater photography, Coral Reefs, Field Guide
Red Sea Governrate
Sinai History, culture, national parks, dive sites, life of the Red Sea....
Sinai Parks Friendly guide to Sinai and the Red Sea
South Sinai Governrate Long beaches, high mountains, natural protective areas....
St Katherine Monastery and the Sinai High Mountain Region - Origins, The Protectorate, Activities
Suez Canal An artificial waterway running north to south. Guide to Egypt
Suez Governrate A unique geographical position, civilian and military characteristics
Valley of the Kings Discover each tomb in the Valley
World Heritage Cities Islamic Cairo - Illustrates the Fatimid conception of urban planning
World Monuments Endangered sites: Khasekhemwy at Hierakonpolis, Edfu
World Monuments Endangered sites: Valley of the Kings, Thebes
World Monuments Endangered sites: Mortuary Temple of King Ahmenhotep III, Gurna
World Monuments Endangered sites: Sultan Al Muayyad Hospital, Cairo
World Monuments Endangered sites: Sultan Qu'itabay complex, Cairo
World Monuments Endangered sites: Valley of the Kings, Thebes
World Monuments Endangered sites: White and Red Monasteries, Sohag

Flag, Maps, Emblems and other information....

Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
Egyptian Stamps History, gallery, collectors' corner....
Ethnologue Languages
Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts
Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags, subdivisions, national emblem....
World Atlas A brief description, fast facts, flag, landforms, maps, traveller info, weather
World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
World Paper Money Paper currency since 1926

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Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Alexandria Business Association Provide networking opportunities, consolidate business and social ties
American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt The first, largest and most active American Chamber in the Middle East
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet, travel information, trade watch....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
British Egyptian Business Association (BEBA) Primary resource for members to achieve success in the business economy
Business Etiquette and Culture A guide for doing business ....
Chamber of Food Industries (CFI) Providing scientific research, advanced technical expertise and information
Cairo & Alexandria Stock Exchanges Statistics, contacts, FAQs, links....
Capital Market Authority (CMA) Responsible for securing a transparent and credible market for investors in Egypt
Egypt and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
Egyptian Capital Market Association Advancement of the economy and providing investment opportunities to the public
Egyptian Capital Market Stocks Quotes Porfolio, mutual funds, useful info, broker directory....
Egyptian International Trade Point e-Business, e-Directory, staistics, facilities, trade info, list of industrial cities....
10th of Ramadan Trade Point >
Badr Trade Point >
Kafr El Shiekh Trade Point
Mansoura Trade Point
Egyptian Maritime Data Bank (EMDB) Info systems, services, Egyptian ports....
Export from Egypt Provides information and services relevant to exporting activities
Italian Chamber of Commerce – Egypt Promoting and developing commercial, industrial and other various forms of cooperation
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Middle East Regional Veterinary Information System Livestock & production data in Egypt
Misurata Chamber of Commerce & Industry (MCCI) To reach the objectives of local economic and social development....
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
Project Evaluation and MacroEconomic Analysis (PEMA) Conducting a systematic evaluation of foreign aid projects in Egypt
Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises A dynamic force for export development, sustained economic growth and job creation
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
US Department of State Country commercial guide 2001 (pdf)
US Department of State Country reports on economic policy and trade practices - 1999
World Bank Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center
World Trade Organization - WTO Provides trade statistics, goods schedules, services schedules and MFN exemptions, trade policy reviews, dispute cases, and notifications


Central Bank of Egypt Formulating monetary , credit , & banking policy and supervising its implementation
Egyptian American Bank Offers a wide range of banking and financial services
Egyptian Saudi Finance Bank Its activities are in compliance with principles and rules of Islamic Sharia
National Bank of Egypt Building up expertise in many new products area....
Suez Canal Bank Participating in the capital of projects

Directories, Job Opportunities

Career Egypt Online recruiters
E-Dars The future of real estate
Egyptian International Trade Point Address
Egyptian Yellow Pages Alexandria & Cairo business directories
Egyway Online business directory
Internet Business Mall The online business directory for Egypt
Jobs in Egypt Create job alerts to receive jobs emails, search for candidates and view resumes
Nile Guide International Egyptian export & investment development program. Importers guide.

Investment & Promotion....

Economic Growth Program of USAID Strengthening the environment for trade and investment
Egyptian Exporters Association ExpoLink offers a set of marketing and technical assistance services to Egyptian exporters
Egyptian Franchise Development Association To encourage and promote entrepreneurship and business through franchising
Sama Marketing Business Exhibitions and conferences organizers in Egypt. Curent and future events,
Trade Egypt Importers, exporters, services, products, trade leads....

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General resources, Heritage, Museums....
Al-Mashriq - The Levant Cultural riches & gateway
The Townhouse Gallery Contemporary Egyptian and foreign art
Cairo Islamic Monuments The early Islamic period to Mohammed Ali Pasha
The Coptic Museum Ancient Egyptian Art during the Pharaonic and the Graeco-Roman periods on one hand and the Islamic era on the other
The Egyptian Castle Know a little bit more about Egypts's culture, music, movies....
Egyptian Heritage Splendors >
Egyptian Museum Masterpieces, restoration, pharaonic gods, pharaonic eras, games.... Alternative site
Egyptian Museum Alternative site
Graeco—Roman Museum Alexandria - . Offer an excellent introduction to the Greek and Roman art of Egypt
Guardian's Egypt For teachers, students, Egyptologists, and general Egypt enthusiasts
Islamic Art Museum Various collections from Egypt, Arab countries and other regions where Islam dominated
King Tut One Ancient Egypt Directory
Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil and his wife Museum Metal and glass work, ornaments, library, information centre and a lecture theatre
Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil and his wife Museum Alternative site
Museum Tours Virtual Egyptian museum
Nova OnLine Explore the pyramids of Egypt
Rigby's World of Egypt Take a tour of the country, a country rich in history and culture, find out about Egyptian antiquities

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Ahmed Khaled Artist working in mediums of painting and media art
Ahmed Othman Life Entitled Exhibition - Paintings
Essam Azouz Artist - experience in the field of fine arts, painting, drawing and graphic design
Fadia Badrawi Impressionistic and realistic paintings and drawings in oil, pastel, ink and mixed media
Nagui Paintings show a Middle Eastern and a south Mediterranean influence

Azza El-Wakeel Poet - Poems
Naguib Surur Author & poet. His work....

Angus McIntyre Photographs of old cities and tourist sites....
J. F. Maion Nomads'Land. Evocative landscape, adventure and travel photography
Marilyn Batte A Canadian photorealistic oil painter. Living in Cairo. Photographs of land, sea, river and desert scapes
Bill Hocker Photographs Photo Album - Egypt

Egypt Art Paintings, sculptures, ceramics, calligraphy....
Egyptian Cargo Galleries of authentic papyrus paintings....
Safar Khan Gallery A gallery showing modern & contemporary Egyptian fine art.
Travelogue Trip journal and photo galleries

Arab Film Distribution - Egypt Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Cairo Film Festival Celebrating exceptional films from around the world
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports

Khaled Nabawy Actor - Biography, news and photos

Music, Song & Dance....

Al-Mashriq - The Levant Famous artists. Biography, music, songs, films, discography
The Stars of Egypt Biography of some famous dancers

Amr Diab News, biography, discography, photo gallery, media
Amr Diab World Biography, awards, music, videos, movies, photo gallery, events, the band, fan community
Karem Mahmoud The melodious knight of Egyptian music, biography and audio clips
Khaled Selim Singer, musician and actor. Biography,albums, video clips, movies, photo gallery, press releases,eEvents & news, awards - Official fans website
Leyla Mourad "Golden voice of over 1,200 songs and 28 films"
Mohammad Abdel Wahab The father of modern Egyptian song
Nour El-Houdda Girl with golden voice - Popular singer and actress
Sayed Darweesh One of those lightning trajectories in the history of music
Umm Kulthum The star of the east - The Diva of Arabic song

Cairo Opera House Profile, program, venues, companies, reservations....
Egyptian Dance Belly Dance - History, music, the souk, recipes, and of course, the dedicated women of this Art

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Health, Sporting Entities & Info

Egypt Exploration Society Explore, survey, and excavate at ancient sites in Egypt and Sudan
Egyptian Foundation for Promoting Art & Creativity Provide an opportunity for contemporary artists to develop their capabilities and talents
Kemet Quarterly magazine. Critical reviews on society, art, culture, language and religion, covering Pharaonic, Coptic and present day Egypt

Internet Society of Egypt Dedicated to promoting, managing, and facilitating the use of Internet in Egypt

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
El-Zahraa Stud Promotion and preservation of the pure Egyptian Arabians

Diabetes Egypt Portal for people with diabetes and quality of life
HealthNet Information about Egyptian healthcare organizations and professionals

Al-AhlyEgyptian national sporting club online
Al-Ahly News About the club, news, archives, forums....
Cairo Swimming Zone Activities, calendar, results, links
Egyptian Football Association News, competitions, national teams....
Egyptian Handball Federation News, achievments, competitions, national teams, calendar....
Egyptian Olympic Committee Federation, scientific center, museum, news, records
Egyptian Soccer Online magazine
Royal Valley Golf Club Luxur - The place where you play golf

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Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
British International School Education based on British principles
Futures Schools A curriculum that provides students with essential career, academic and life skills
New Cairo British International School Primary education and National Curriculum (England and Wales)
St. Fatima School Provides knowledge and a student's guide to a better standard of learning
WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....

Faculty of Pharmacy
Al-Azhar University A university in which taught different sciences, and religious & mental arts
Al-Minya University Agriculture, Engineering, Technology, Science
Alexandria University Academic specialization and professional education
American University of Cairo Advances the ideals of American liberal arts and professional education
Assiut University Encourage research, education and community services
Cairo University Offering its education and research facilities to Arab and foreign students and scientists
Faculty of Economics and Political Science
Faculty of Medicine Kasr Al-Ainy
Kasr El-Aini e-Library Databases, journals
German University in Cairo In cooperation with the State Universities of Ulm and Stuttgart
Helwan University Numerous faculties , specialization research centers and production units
Mansoura University Essential information about learning and other services rendered to the students of the University
Minufiya University Arts, Social Sciences, Law, Commerce, Agricultural, Computer Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Misr International University Academic programs that integrate instruction, research and community service
Misr University for Science and Technology Offers degree programs in a variety of disciplines
Modern Sciences and Arts University (MSA) Engineering, Computer Science, Mass Communication, Management
Nile University Embodies the unique concept of hosting several international universities on one campus
October 6 University (O6U) Relying on practical study and training, including research classes
Tanta University One of the most distinguished universities concerning its different fields of specialization
Zagazig University Located in Sharkia Governorate

Acadamy of the Arabic Language
Arabic Language Center Learn Arabic
Drayah Language Center Learn the Arabic language and gain experience of the habits and traditions of the Egyptians

Institutions & Organizations

TATWEER Training company specializing in corporate training markets
Academy Of Scientific Research And Technology
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI) Enhance the competitiveness through technological development and technology transfer
Egyptian Student Association in North America Aims at integrating the Egyptian scholarly community across the globe
Electronic Business Institute (EBI) Theory, application and practice for eBusiness and Management Development
Dive Point Red Sea Hurghada - PADI dive and training center
Higher Technological Institute A rich and balanced mix of theoretical Knowledge and intensive practical training
Information Technology Institute (ITI) Professional training programs and Information Technology courses
National Telecommunication Institute (NTI) Contributing to the development of new systems and applications
Red Sea Diving College Career development center which specializes in diver training
Sadat Acadamy Port Said
Virtual IT Institution (VITI) Interactive e-learning course modules and programs

Research, Resources, Libraries & Projects

Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) Information about the institute and its ongoing activities
American Research Center in Egypt Conservation of Egyptian monuments through its special Egyptian Antiquities Project
Bibliotheca Alexandrina A library, specialized libraries, museums, research centers, exhibitions, art galleries, planetarium, Exploratorium and a conference center
Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC) Conducting research trails related to unfavorable climatic conditions
Central Laboratory for Agricultural Expert Systems Helping farmers optimize the use of resources and maximize food production
Egyptian Libraries Network Links automated libraries in Egypt via the Internet
Egyptian National Agricultural Library (ENAL) Collecting, organizing , analyzing agricultural information
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI) In the fields of production, exploration, refining, petrochemicals, product application, evaluation, process design
Egyptian Universities Network (EUN) Facilitate the communication between the Egyptian Universities and provide them with different resources of information
Maadi Library
Medical Student Guide A guide to first year in Ain Shams Faculty of Medicine
Mubarak Public Library A living reality that interacts with the public
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF) Research to cover food production, environment and pollution control and coastal protection
National Network for Scientific & Technical Information (ENSTINET) Databases and directories to assist the researchers
National Research Center (NRC) Conduct research in different fields of science and advanced technologies
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Research programs to control, diagnosis and manage of urinary and hepatic schistosomiasis and other endemic diseases
Virtual Extension and Research Communication Network (VERCON) Linkages of the national agricultural knowledge and information system

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History, Human Right & Politics

Ancient & Modern....
Ancient Egypt Here are the links to sites that feature all aspects of ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt Online The Quick Guide to Ancient Egypt - Pharaohs, Queens of Egypt, Hieroglyphics, Gods and Goddesses, Pyramids, Daily Life, Mummies....
BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
Cairo's Recollections Articles, photos and references dealing with 19th and 20th century aspects of a 1000 year old capital
Egyptology Examining the art, archaeology, religion and history of Egypt
National Geographic At the Tomb of Tutankhamen, Mysteries of Egypt....
The Pharaohs The whole ancient Egyptian history from the begining to the end
Political Geography Land and people, economy, government, history....
A Woman Called Egypt About a brief period in Cleopatra's youth when her actions affected the entire ancient world
World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....

Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Amnesty International News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Human Rights Watch Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

Ikhwan Online Moslem Brotherhood official website

Related Sites, Articles....

Constitution Background, history & news
Egyptian Armed Forces Commanders, branches, acadamies, museums, mines problem ....

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Newspapers, Magazines....
Akhbar El-Yom Daily newspaper
Al-Ahali Weekly magazine
Al-Ahram Daily newspaper
Al-Ahram Al-Arabi Weekly magazine
Al-Ahram Weekly Weekly English newspaper
Al-Alam El-Yom Daily newspaper - Economy
Al-Elm Monthly magazine - Scientific
Al-Gomhouria Daily newspaper
Al-Koura Weekly newspaper - Football
Al-Messa Daily newspaper
Al-Osboa Weekly magazine
Al-Shaab Daily newspaper
Al-Siyassa Al-Dawliya (International Political Jornal) Quarterly periodical specialized in political and international affairs
Amwague Eskandaria Monthly magazine - Cultural
Cairo Times Twice weekly magazine
Dar Al-Tahrir Assorment of daily, weekly and monthly magazines and newspapers. Foreign & evening editions....
Dar Akhbar El-Yom Assorment of daily, weekly and monthly magazines and newspapers. Politics, art, sport, cars....
Egypt Today Monthly newspaper....
Middle East Times Daily newspaper

OnLine News, Newsletters, News agencies....

Al-Gomhouria On-Line Daily newspaper - Electronic supplement
AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
Cairo Live News, views & entertainment....
Car.Com Information about cars in Egypt online....
Egypt Daily Online news....
Egyptian Online news, polls + arabic poetry and literature....
Go News News, Almanac, downloads, quotes, useful links
Kemet The only cultural journal on Egypt in the German language
Tahrir Online news, poll, sport, social....
Washington Post News & references
Ya Balady National, Regional and International news, politics, science, sport, economy. culture, art, technolgy, health, medicine....
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

InternetMisr Monthly update. Internet news, tips....
SU9BN History and background, photo album, Egyptian experiences!

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....

General Info * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, Middle East, North Africa and regional organizations

Government & Organizations, Corporations, Societies....

Government, Ministries, Councils....
Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1936 (with pictures)

Cabinet Information & Decision Support Centre - IDSC Observation of the local, regional, and international economic phenomena and events
Advanced Library Information System To meet the needs and requirements for the storage and retrieval of Arabic and English documents
Communication Department Technical support....
Computer Works Deposit Department Services, forms, specifications,
Directory of Libraries General, geographic....
Egyptian Libraries Network General and children search, current awareness, famous characters, famous librariies....
Government On-Line Services, ministries, important links....
Libraries Sector Consultancy services for the development of Egyptian libraries
The Universal Program for Gathering Leadership and Management Qualifications
Central Agency for Public Moblization and Statistics - CAPMAS Data and information required in all fields and activities in Egypt
Central Auditing Organization (CAO) Responsible for the Auditing process upon the public& private sector
Egypt State Information Service - SIS The latest information on various diverse topics about Egypt....
Egypt's Information Portal
Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority To geologically map the whole country and to explore its mineral wealth
Egyptian Government Services portal
Egyptian Meteorological Authority
Egyptian Organization for Standardization (EOS) Matters related to standardization, quality control and metrology
Egyptian People's Assembly Majlis Al-Shura is the legislative power. history, provisions, functions, organs....
Egyptian People's Assembly The Parliment - Alternative site
Egyptian Presidency The President, Egypt profile, news desk, Abdeen palace, archives
Egyptian Sales Tax Department Offering information and services that will increase awareness of General Sales Tax
Government Online (Al-Hokoma) Services, ministries & contacts, ministries websites
Information Society Development Office Link the Egyptian community with regional and global IS communities
Ministry of Aministration Development Edara
Ministry of Al-Awqaf (Religious Affairs) Supreme council for Islamic affairs
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Preparing a strategy for agricultural development
Ministry of Communications & Information Technology To remain relevant in a rapidly changing technological landscape
Ministry of Economy To develop economic activities, and to encourage local, Arab and international investments
Ministry of Education Information for students, teachers and parents....
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Foreign policies, treaties, consular & press sections, about Egypt....
International Cooperation Sector Preparing and concluding investment guarantee agreements with foreign governments and organizations
Ministry of Health and Population
Ministry Of Manpower & Emigration
Emigration Sector To establish close links with individuals or groups abroad
Ministry of Planning GDP, investment, employment....
Ministry of Public Enterprise To enhance the efficiency of public enterprises
Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs Environmental protection and environmental development projects
Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Services, projects, news, events, database....
Ministry of Youth Al=Shabab - Activities, achievments, statistics, services....
National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (ENCID) Members are Governmental Engineers, Professors from Universities and Research Centers
National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM) Protection and development of children
National Council for Women An autonomous body responsible for the empowerment of the Egyptian women
National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health To prevent causes of accidents and health hazards
Shoura Assembly Senate, Parliamentary life history

Embassy of Egypt - London, UK Provide information on a range of subjects including information on the Egyptian-UK relations in political, economic, and cultural fields
Embassy of Egypt - Tokyo, Japan Information, politics, economy, history, culture, visa, consular affairs, what's new....
Egyptian Consulate General - San Francisco, USA Tourism, passports & immigration, civil & criminal affairs....
Egyptian Cultural & Educational Bureau Cultural contact between Egypt and Germany

Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities

EgyptAlum Represent a commitment to investment in the future
Telecom Egypt Electronic services, main sections....

Mokattam Surgery Center Supervised by Cairo University staff....
Victoria Hospital Alexendria....

Centers, Institutes, Societies, Unions....

Al-Mishkat Research Center Devoted to advancing knowledge on contemporary Egypt and Arab countries
Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage Monitors the development of human heritage and represents a cultural heritage of national and international value
Cooperation and Development Association for Egyptian and European Youth (CDAEEY) To create and build educational and cultural grass-root channels
Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services To promote the sanctity, equity and harmony of life
Egyptian Businessmen's Association Providing world class information, comprehensive & maximized level of technical support
Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES) Conducting and disseminating applied policy research
Egyptian Junior Business Association Committed to the development of a culture of Excellence, Ethics and Public service
Egyptian Medical Syndicate
Egyptian Orthopaedic Association Continuous medical education in orthopaedics and traumatology
Egyptian Pediatric Surgical Association Establishment of multicenteric studies
Egyption Radio and Telivision Union
Egyptian Society of Child Neuropsychiatry Children at risk, events, activities
Egyptian Society of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeons
Egyptian Society of Internal Medicine Concerned with the current progress in medical diagnosis and therapy
Future Generation Foundation Enhancing workforce performance through high quality, practical, human resources development activities
Human and Technology Development Foundation Promoting ethical and effective use of ICT to better serve humanity
Integrated Care Society Cultural & educational services, child care, social development....
National NGOs Center for Population and Development Provides information services to local NGOs
Social Fund for Development Channeling of additional public investments towards social services
Society for the Protection of Animal Rights, Egypt SPARE - highest priority is the overall prevention of cruelty to animals
Software Engineering Competence Center (SECC) Support the development of the software industry in Egypt
Union of Producers and Exporters of Horticultural Crops (UPEHC) Enhancement of the Egyptian horticultural industry
Union of Producers and Exporters of Horticultural Crops (UPEHC) Alternative site

Foreign Entities

British Embassy The Embassy offers consular, commercial and visa services to members of the public....
Delegation of the European Commission to Egypt To deepen the relationship between Egypt and the European Union
French Embassy Cultre, education, science, economy, technology....
Japanse Embassy Ambassador, press releases, events, relations, cultural centre, visas, what's new.... Information on Embassy in Cairo, its services, activities and ways to contact the Embassy
US Embassy US mission, consular services, latest news, US policy, journals, articles....

CARE International Promoting self-generated strategies and community resource mobilization....
US Committee for Refugees Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
United Nations in Egypt UN system, development programs, events, documents, links
United Nations Development Programme To help the Egyptian government in its efforts to reduce poverty and to promote sustainable development policies
USAID Assistance to Egypt....
World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

General Info * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters services
Egypt Air Flight Schedule, Travel Advice....

Egypt Nile Cruises Cruise itineraries include land tours of legendary sites along the Nile River
Egypt Tours and Travel Land and cruise tour operator
Isis Travel Nile cruises, golf, cities & places, essentials....
Nile Boats River cruises , information , photos....
Royal Cleopatra Dahabia Charters Exploring the beautiful Wonders of Ancient Egypt by a traditional Egyptian Boat

Diving and Liveaboard

Al-Farouk Scuba diving liveaboard trips throughout the Red Sea region
Aquanaut Liveaboard Red Sea safaris and diving
Barakuda Diving Liveaboard vessels cruise from North to South and cover all the top spots of the Red Sea.
Blue Paradise Diving Center Day dives, night dives, diving safaris and snorkel trips
Blue Planet Liveaboards Opportunity to explore some of the more remote and pristine reefs thus avoiding the crowds
Blue Water Diving in the Red Sea - Hurghada
Capt. Moro A floating paradise that offer comfort, safety and ease of diving
Carpe Diem A maximum of 12 people are accomodated on board during diving or relaxing cruises
Colona Divers Diving and snorkelling the very best coral reefs in the world
Dive Point Red Sea Snorkelling, diving courses and diving - Hurghada
Dive Point Seven Scuba Diving & Snorkeling in the Red Sea
Divers International a wide variety of dive activities and special programs - Hurghada & Sharm El Sheikh
Diving Ocean Discover the magic of the Red Sea in Egypt: Come to dive with Diving Ocean in Marsa Alam or in Sharm el Sheikh
Divers Fleet Liveaboard and diving safaris in the entire Red Sea water paradise in Egypt
Diving World Liveaboard a luxurious hotel floating on the warm turquoise Red Sea
Emperor Divers Scuba Diving services across the Red Sea Riviera including liveaboard
Galalah Fleet Liveaboard diving and fishing
Golden Dolphin Safari World Liveaboard trips and discover a new face of diving day or night
Juliet Red Sea live-aboard, a big boat but she only caters for small groups which means more space
Sea Serpent Fleet The way liveaboards should be...
Sinai Divers Sharm El-Sheikh, the Red Sea, the desert, national parks....
Teate Liveaboards, Red Sea diving, island hopping, water sports and snorkeling
Tornado Marine Fleet Luxurious liveaboard offering Scuba diving safaris
VIP One Luxury in liveaboard diving

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

Aegyptus Intertravel Off road expeditions, mountain trekking, sailing, bird watching, canooing, Jeep safaris....
Al-Musafer Guide, places, maps, weather, transport, tours....
All Sinai A guide for divers, sun fanatics, safarists and those that are interested in history or religion
Alternative Egypt Travel guide for the independent traveller
Amazon Tours & Holidays Programs with sightseeing and hotel accommodation, transportation, guide in Egypt with new services....
Arab African Tours About Egypt, programs & packages....
Asfour Travel Offers trips to regions like Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Red Sea, Sinai, Western desert....
Beauty Egypt Traditional sightseeing, local culture tours....
Cairo Express Travel Red Sea hotels, Nile cruises and malls
Continental Tours Offers a wide variety of programs suited to the interests and budgets of each traveller
Cosmos Tours Full services for groups and individuals traveling to Egypt. Travel tips, about Egypt
Dabuka Expeditions Expeditions in the Desert of Northern Africa....
Discover Sinai Dahab, hotel, diving, riding, dancing, yoga, safari....
Egypt.Guide News, business, tourism, entertainment, education, life style, health, sport
Egypt Guidelines Egypt, Cairo, Aswan, Luxor, Alexandria travel guides, hotels, tours....
Egypt Nile Cruises Cruise ship information & itineraries, overland tour programs....
Egypt's Tourism Net Culture, maps & attractions, travel agencies, hotels, services guide....
Egyptian Connection Information about Egypt and how to make the most of your next trip
Five Star Travel Executing specially tailored itineraries that reveal all of what Egypt has to offer
GAT Tours Provide the most enjoyable and informative trips
Giftun Soul Surfers Wind surfing, fun & action at the beach - Hurghada
Go Egypt Great Tours To Egypt , Egypt History , Egypt Photos....
Festivals & Tours in Egypt Fairs and festivals that abound with festivity and colors
Hermes Group Egypt info, tours, hotels, photo gallery....
Just Egypt Egypt travel guide and tourist information, including Nile cruises and historic tours
Marsa Alam Popular with wind surfers, divers and sun worshippers
Min Travel Extensive travel services and tour packages....
Noga Tours 1 Your gateway to the Egyptian experience
ProCenter Tommy Friedl Wind & kite surfing - Hurghada
Redsea Desert Advetures Daily excursions and long safaris
Red Sea Guide Visitors' guide, desert safaris, scuba diving....
Road to Egypt Tours and travel, luxury hotels, Nile cruises, Aida opera, Giza Pyramids (USA based)
S.S. Tours See an Egypt no other agency can offer you
Safari Egypt Ancient Egyptian gods, pyramids, Nile cruises, travel, tourism....
Safari Travel Specialists in diving holidays, desert safaris and other aspects of tourism in Egypt
Scuba Travel - Diving In The Red Sea Warm water, astounding visibility, dramatic drop offs and a vast array of wrecks just add to the appeal
Sea Desert Tours Dedicated to maximizing the ease and comfort for travelers both within Libya , Egypt and Sudan
Sinai Adventures Diving, safari, trekking, events, flora and fauna guide, photo gallery....
Sinai Sharm All about Sharm El-Sheikh, Shopping, real estate, maps, events, advertising
Spring Tours A group of experts in the tourism world; Nile cruisers, safaris, aviation and events
Summit Tours Guarantees you a totally different kind of services
Ten Tours Providing visitors to Egypt affordable & personalized holidays
Tour Egypt Travel Guide Official site of the Egyptian Tourist Authority
Travel to Egypt Tours, Cities and Sights, Ancient Egypt, History, Pyramids, Pharaohs, and Pictures
Yalla Bina - Cairo Cafe Entertainment guide, what's on in Cairo & Alexandria., restaurants, movies, openings and cultural events

Adventures of Egypt Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
Lonely Planet Travel information, maps, photos, background historical and cultural information
Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
Travel Guide General & trave info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
World Travel Guide Travel information, regions & places....

Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....

Beausite Hotel Marsa Matrouh
Camel Dive Club & Hotel An ideal base from which to enjoy a holiday on the Red Sea Riviera
Four Seasons Hotel Cairo at The First Residence Views of the Great Pyramids over the old-growth canopy of Cairo’s ancient Zoological and Botanical Gardens
Four Seasons Hotel Cairo at Nile Plaza Commanding views of both the Nile and the Citadel
Pharoah Egypt Hotel In the heart of Giza - Cairo
The Ritz-Carlton Luxury Hotels Sharm El Sheikh
Rotana Hotels, Inns & Suites Al Arish, Sharm El-Sheikh
Semiramis Inter-Continental Cairo Located in the heart of the city, facing the River Nile

Hilton Hotels
Borg El Arab Resort Alex. / Matrouh Desert Rd
DAHAB South Sinai
Hurghada Plaza Gabal el Hareem, Main Street
Luxur New Karnak
Nuweiba Coral Resort South Sinai
Ramses Corniche El Nile, Cairo
Sharm Dreams Resort Naama Bay Sharm El Sheikh, South Sinai
Sharm El Sheikh Fayrouz Resort Main road
Sharm Waterfalls Resort Ras Um El-Sid Cliff, South Sinai
Taba Resort South Sinai

Hyatt Regency Hotels
Sharm El Sheikh Resort
Taba Heights

Marriott Hotels
JW Marriott Hotel Mirage City Cairo
Marriott Cairo Hotel
Marriott Hurghada Beach Resort
Marriott Sharm El Sheikh Beach Resort
Renaissance Alexandria Hotel
Marriott Taba

Moevinpick Hotels
Cairo-Media City
El Alamein
El Gouna
El Quseir
Nile Cruiser-Radamis I & II
Sharm El Sheikh Resort & casino
Sharm El Sheikh Golf & resort

Egypt Hotel Guide Hotels, tours, cruises, resturants....
Egypt Hotels Choose your hotel using criteria such as name of the hotel, number of stars and location
Hotels Egypt Cheapest rates on quality accommodation in Cairo and other cities


Le Pacha Originally a paddle boat, now one of Cairo's landmark dining and entertainment venues moored along the banks of the Nile along the Gezira Island
Jackie's Joint Fun pub and disco at the 5 star Nile Hilton Hotel
Peking Chinese Chain of Resaurants Branches, what's on, menu, horoscope

Health & Travel Tips

Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....


Tide Calendar Tide times, sunset, sunrise and global position
Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....

General Info * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links

Gateways to Egypt

Egypt Search Categorized listing....
Egypt Tour Directories, shopping, cuisine, travel....
Egyptian Directory Categorized listing....
Egypt WWW The Egyptian web sites directory covering almost all fields and activities

General Info * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

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Arab Countries - Egypt

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