The Country & People of Yemen
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Yemen, officially Republic of Yemen, republic (1995 est. pop. 14,728,000), 207,000 sq mi (536,000 sq km), SW Asia, on the S Arabian peninsula, bordered by Saudia Arabia (N), Oman (E), the Gulf of Aden (S), and the Red Sea (W); formed in 1990 by the union of the Yemen Arab Republic (Yemen or Northern Yemen) and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Southern Yemen). The capital is Sana; the port of Adenis the commercial capital. A narrow coastal plain rises to interior highlands and the Rub al Khali desert. The country includes several islands, e.g., Perim and Socotra. Yemen is very poor. Most of the population is engaged in growing grains, vegetables, fruits, cotton, coffee, and khat (a stimulant-containing shrub) and raising sheep, goats, and camels. Oil has been produced since the late 1980s, and imported oil is also processed into petroleum products for export. Salt is the only other commercially exploitable mineral. Manufacturing, largely based on agricultural products, provides little revenue. Foreign aid and remittances from Yemenis working abroad are important to the economy. Yemen is the most populous nation on the Arabian peninsula. The great majority of the inhabitants are Arabs, about two thirds of whom are Sunni Muslims; the rest are Shiite Muslims. Arabic is the official language.
Once part of the ancient Sabaean kingdom (fl. c.750 &BC;–115 &BC;), Yemen was later ruled by the Himyarites, Romans, Ethiopians, and Persians. It was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. &AD;, and in the 16th cent. it became part of the Ottoman Empire. The northwestern portion bordering on the Red Sea became (1918) an independent kingdom (known as Yemen or Northern Yemen) ruled by the Rassite dynasty, imams of the Zaidi Shiite sect of Islam.
In 1962 an army coup led to the proclamation of a republic. Civil war followed, with Egypt supporting the republicans and Saudi Arabia and Jordan backing the royalists; it ended in 1970 with a republic in place. The southern portion bordering on the Gulf of Aden was penetrated in the 19th cent. by the British, who conquered Aden in 1839 and between 1886 and 1914 signed a number of protectorate treaties with local rulers. Aden was made a crown colony in 1935, and the area to its east became the Aden Protectorate in 1937.
In the 1960s, nationalist groups demanding independence began a terrorist campaign against the British, and independence was granted to Southern Yemen in 1967.
The National Liberation Front gained control of the government and established a Marxist regime in 1971. Unity agreements between the two Yemens in 1971 and 1981 were not implemented because of recurrent warfare, but a merger negotiated in 1989 resulted in formal unification in 1990. Pres.
Ali Abdullah Saleh of Northern Yemen became president. By 1993, however, relations between the north and south had grown tense, and fighting between army units in 1994 erupted into a nine-week civil war in which northern forces were victorious.
Yemen clashed with Eritrea over control of the Hanish Islands in the Red Sea in 1995; the Hague Tribunal awarded the islands to Yemen in 1998.
In 1999, in Yemen's first direct presidential election, Saleh was returned to office amid opposition charges of fraud. A border treaty ending disputes with Saudi Arabia that dated to the 1930s was signed in 2000, and early in 2001 the two nations began implementing the pact.
President Saleh announced support for the U.S. “war on terror” in 2001 and subsequently received American aid and made some moves against Muslim extremists, but the terror attacks also continued. Saleh’s General People’s Congress won more than two thirds of the seats in the 2003 legislative elections.
In June, 2004, government forces began raids against supporters of Shiite cleric Hussein al-Hawthi, who was accused of sedition and extremism. The cleric had denounced the government’s pro-American policies and government corruption. Several months of fighting in N Yemen, in which hundreds died, followed, and in September Sheikh Hawthi was killed and a cease-fire mediated.
Fighting erupted again in Apr., 2005, when the government attacked Hawthi’s followers after unsuccessful negotiations. Almost a year later some 600 rebels were released in an amnesty, but attacks continued spordically until June, 2007, when a cease-fire was agreed to.
Meanwhile, in July, 2005, fuel price increases sparked protests and riots across Yemen, leading the government to roll the increases back somewhat. That same month the president said he would not seek a new term in Sept., 2006, a position he reversed a year later.
In the 2006 presidential Saleh was reelected with more than three-fourths of the vote, but the opposition rejected the results. Despite irregularities, the election was generally regarded as an improvement over the previous presidential poll.
In 2007, Yemen saw increasingly sizable numbers of Somalis crossing the Gulf of Aden in an attempt to flee the fighting in Somalia, growing from about 1,000 in 2005 to almost 30,000 in 2007 and even more in 2008.
By early 2008, S Yemeni unhappiness with unification was again becoming pronounced, as protests and riots occurred in parts of S Yemen; sporadic unrest continued into 2010.
Copyright (c) 2012 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.
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- Saba Islamic Bank
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- Ancient Inscriptions The results of the archaeological survey of the direct environs of the Himyarite capital Baynun
- Tareem Centre for archiving of cultural traditions and mud buildings
Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....
- Art of Yemen Amazing paintings from Local Yemeni Artists from Hodeidah
- Nizar Mezhar Paintings of people and places of Yemen
- Der Jemen Picture Gallery
- Arab Film Distribution - Yemen Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
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Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info
- Al-Arabia Al-Saeeda Yemenis in Canada and USA
- Le Cercle Franco Yemenite To promote friendship and understanding between the peoples of the two countries
- Egyption Culture Center Sanaa
- Urban Cultural Heritage Program To boost and to guide the revitalisation process of historic cities in the country
- Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
- AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
- BirdLife To determine the priorities for bird conservation in the region
Women Organizations, Societies, Affairs....
- Al-Aman Association for Blind Women Protecting the blind from exploitation in all its forms
- Society for the Development of Women & Children SOUL- To achieve a higher quality of life for Yemeni women and children
- Women National Committee Proposes policies, strategies, plans, and programs related to women affairs
- Yemen Women Union Improving Yemeni Women status and her participation in political, social, economic and cultural aspects of life.
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- The American School Typical American curriculum
- Aden University
- Al-Ahqaf University Mukalla
- Al-Iman University Sanaa
- Hadhramout University of Science & Technology
- Ibb University
- Queen Arwa University Sanaa
- Sanaa University
- University of Science & Technology Sanaa & Hodeidah
- Yemen Networking Academy Learn about the networks devices by CISCO
Institutions & Organizations
Yemeni Students Association Abroad (YSAA) To help make a change for the better
- American Institute for Yemeni Studies Acting as an information exchange
- Center for Arabic Language and Eastern Studies (CALES) Center for teaching Arabic language and Yemeni culture for Non-native speakers
- Modern American Language Institute
- Modern American Language Institute (Faster loading)
- The Supreme Institute of Justice
- Yemeni Consultant House
Training and qualification in management, accounting, industry, oil, tourism, computers science and modern languages
- Yemen Language Center & Yemen Center for Arab Studies Facilitates individual scholars and teams of scholars doing research in Yemen
Research, Resources & Projects
- Basic Education Expansion Project To increase enrollment in basic education
- eLibrary For experts, researchers, educators and students....
- French Center for Archaeology and Social Sciences Sanaa - the study of the social significance of traditional practices....
- Yemeni Education Channel
- Yemeni Scientific Research Foundation (YSRF) Advancing the cause of science and scientific research through a partnership with the private sector
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- Al-Tahwry The newspaper of the Socialist Party of Yemen
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- Yemen Times Daily newspaper
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- Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
- Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1962 (with pictures)
- President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh
- Agricultural Research and Extention Authority (AREA)
- Central Organization for Control and Auditing (COCA) Helps the state authorities perform their functions.
- Customs Authority
- General Authority for Insurances & Pensions
- General Tourism Development Authority
- The Government Official website
- House of Parliament
- Labour Market Information System (LMIS)
- Ministry of Education
- Ministry of Industry & Trade The authority concerned with domestic and foreign trade policy drawing and organization
- Ministry of Information
- Ministry of Oil & Minerals Responsible for the administration, development, and exploitation of Oil, Gas, and Mineral Resources
- Ministry of Public Health & Population
- Ministry of Public Works & Urban Planning
- National Information Center Aims to establish, develop, and manage integrated national system for Information
- Petroluem Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA) Receiving , collecting and filing ,different information of the technical activities....
- Shoora Council
- Social Fund for Development Seeks to reduce poverty by improving living conditions....
- Supreme Commission for Elections and Referendum To review a number of reports on the votes counting results
- Survey Authority The Government Agency for Mapping and Land Registration
- Tax Authority
- Yemeni National Commission for Education, Culture & Science
Aims to accomplish and develop the co-operation between the various concerned parties
- Embassy of Yemen in Germany Berlin
- Embassy of Yemen in UAE Abu Dhabi
- Embassy of Yemen in UK London
- Embassy of Yemen in USA Washington DC
- Yemen Mission to the UN
Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities
- Al-Thawra Industrial Complex
- Yemen Company For Ghee & Soap Industry Ghee & edible oil, along with soap and detergents
- Y.Net The main ISP of Yemen
- Yemen.Net ISP provider
- Yemen Post Stamp shop, money orders, bills online....
Centers, Institutions, Societies....
- Accounting Financial Management Information System (AFMIS) Developing an accounting and financial management information system
- Al-Qabaitah Province Charitable Cooperation Society
To improve the economic, social, cultural, health and education status of all citizen in the province
- Charitable Society for Social Welfare
- General Center for Studies, Research & Publishing Studying national issues undertaking scientific, political and cultural tasks
- General Council of Trade Unions
- British Council To promote and strengthen Yemen's institutional and social development through partnership
- French Embassy Sanaa - Consular section
- Indian Embassy Sanaa
- Italian Embassy Sanaa - General information about the structure, services and activities
- Royal Netherlands Embassy Sanaa
- US Embassy Sanaa
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- World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
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- Yemenia Yemen airlines - History, tourist info, facts bbout Yemen, gallery....
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- Al-Nasim Travel & Tourism Serve the domestic and international market
- Future Tours Industries A wakeup call to a world of incomparable dreams & non-stop wonders
- Life Change Tours Tourism in Yemen, Diving in the Red Sea, adventurous hiking tours....
- Voyages Au Yemen Promoting real meetings and interaction between visitors and local communities
- Yemen Explorers About Yemen, travel hints, places of interest, pictures, hotels, adventure tours, diving tours, trekking tours....
- Yemen Old Splendour Tours A choice of outstanding places of antiquities and history
- Yemen Tourism Be ready to be astounded....
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