The Country & People of Yemen
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Yemen, officially Republic of Yemen, republic (1995 est. pop. 14,728,000), 207,000 sq mi (536,000 sq km), SW Asia, on the S Arabian peninsula, bordered by Saudia Arabia (N), Oman (E), the Gulf of Aden (S), and the Red Sea (W); formed in 1990 by the union of the Yemen Arab Republic (Yemen or Northern Yemen) and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Southern Yemen). The capital is Sana; the port of Adenis the commercial capital. A narrow coastal plain rises to interior highlands and the Rub al Khali desert. The country includes several islands, e.g., Perim and Socotra. Yemen is very poor. Most of the population is engaged in growing grains, vegetables, fruits, cotton, coffee, and khat (a stimulant-containing shrub) and raising sheep, goats, and camels. Oil has been produced since the late 1980s, and imported oil is also processed into petroleum products for export. Salt is the only other commercially exploitable mineral. Manufacturing, largely based on agricultural products, provides little revenue. Foreign aid and remittances from Yemenis working abroad are important to the economy. Yemen is the most populous nation on the Arabian peninsula. The great majority of the inhabitants are Arabs, about two thirds of whom are Sunni Muslims; the rest are Shiite Muslims. Arabic is the official language.
Once part of the ancient Sabaean kingdom (fl. c.750 &BC;–115 &BC;), Yemen was later ruled by the Himyarites, Romans, Ethiopians, and Persians. It was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. &AD;, and in the 16th cent. it became part of the Ottoman Empire. The northwestern portion bordering on the Red Sea became (1918) an independent kingdom (known as Yemen or Northern Yemen) ruled by the Rassite dynasty, imams of the Zaidi Shiite sect of Islam.
In 1962 an army coup led to the proclamation of a republic. Civil war followed, with Egypt supporting the republicans and Saudi Arabia and Jordan backing the royalists; it ended in 1970 with a republic in place. The southern portion bordering on the Gulf of Aden was penetrated in the 19th cent. by the British, who conquered Aden in 1839 and between 1886 and 1914 signed a number of protectorate treaties with local rulers. Aden was made a crown colony in 1935, and the area to its east became the Aden Protectorate in 1937.
In the 1960s, nationalist groups demanding independence began a terrorist campaign against the British, and independence was granted to Southern Yemen in 1967.
The National Liberation Front gained control of the government and established a Marxist regime in 1971. Unity agreements between the two Yemens in 1971 and 1981 were not implemented because of recurrent warfare, but a merger negotiated in 1989 resulted in formal unification in 1990. Pres.
Ali Abdullah Saleh of Northern Yemen became president. By 1993, however, relations between the north and south had grown tense, and fighting between army units in 1994 erupted into a nine-week civil war in which northern forces were victorious.
Yemen clashed with Eritrea over control of the Hanish Islands in the Red Sea in 1995; the Hague Tribunal awarded the islands to Yemen in 1998.
In 1999, in Yemen's first direct presidential election, Saleh was returned to office amid opposition charges of fraud. A border treaty ending disputes with Saudi Arabia that dated to the 1930s was signed in 2000, and early in 2001 the two nations began implementing the pact.
President Saleh announced support for the U.S. “war on terror” in 2001 and subsequently received American aid and made some moves against Muslim extremists, but the terror attacks also continued. Saleh’s General People’s Congress won more than two thirds of the seats in the 2003 legislative elections.
In June, 2004, government forces began raids against supporters of Shiite cleric Hussein al-Hawthi, who was accused of sedition and extremism. The cleric had denounced the government’s pro-American policies and government corruption. Several months of fighting in N Yemen, in which hundreds died, followed, and in September Sheikh Hawthi was killed and a cease-fire mediated.
Fighting erupted again in Apr., 2005, when the government attacked Hawthi’s followers after unsuccessful negotiations. Almost a year later some 600 rebels were released in an amnesty, but attacks continued spordically until June, 2007, when a cease-fire was agreed to.
Meanwhile, in July, 2005, fuel price increases sparked protests and riots across Yemen, leading the government to roll the increases back somewhat. That same month the president said he would not seek a new term in Sept., 2006, a position he reversed a year later.
In the 2006 presidential Saleh was reelected with more than three-fourths of the vote, but the opposition rejected the results. Despite irregularities, the election was generally regarded as an improvement over the previous presidential poll.
In 2007, Yemen saw increasingly sizable numbers of Somalis crossing the Gulf of Aden in an attempt to flee the fighting in Somalia, growing from about 1,000 in 2005 to almost 30,000 in 2007 and even more in 2008.
By early 2008, S Yemeni unhappiness with unification was again becoming pronounced, as protests and riots occurred in parts of S Yemen; sporadic unrest continued into 2010. Amid protests in early 2011 against his rule (which echoed similar protests in Tunisia and Egypt against entrenched rulers there), the president promised in February not to seek reelection. Recurring demonstrations, however, were stoked by the killings of demonstrators, which also split the ruling party and the military. By April, the widespread protests had crippled the country.
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) attempted to negotiate Saleh's resignation, but the president several times reneged on agreements. The unsettled situation invigorated militant Islamists, who mounted attacks in S Yemen and were able to seize control of some areas; fighting with the Islamists continued into 2012. In late May tribal militias became increasing active in opposing Saleh, and fought with government forces in Sana and Taiz. In early June Saleh was severely wounded in an attack on the presidential compound and went to Saudi Arabia for treatment; he returned in September. A truce with the tribal militias largely held during the summer, but beginning in September there were more serious outbreaks.
In November, Saleh agreed to transfer his powers to Vice President Abdrabuh Mansur Hadi under a GCC-brokered plan, remaining on as titular president until an election (later were called for Feb., 2012). An interim government, with cabinet posts divided equally between the government and opposition and headed by Prime Minister Mohammed Basindwa, an opposition politician, was appointed in Dec., 2011; the new government subsequently approved a law granting immunity to Saleh. In Feb., 2012, Abdrabuh Mansur Hadi was elected president in an election in which he was the only candidate, but Saleh remained a political force and attempted to undermine the interim government through his supporters in it and the military. The military subsequently mounted an offensive against the militant Islamists in S Yemen, and by mid-2012 had largely reestablished government control there, but the area continued to be the scene of sporadic fighting.
In August and in December, Hadi ordered armed forces reorganizations designed to reduce the influence of Saleh and others in the military. Not all the changes. however, came into effect in subsequent months. In Apr., 2013, Hadi ordered further changes and removed Saleh's relatives from military command positions. A national dialogue conference intended to help develop a new constitution for Yemen began in Mar., 2013, and ended in Jan., 2014; it approved a six-region federal system for the country and extended Hadi's term by a year.
In Sept., 2013, the prime minister was the subject of an assassination attempt. Houthi Shiites attacked in a Sunni Salafist school in NW Yemen in October and November, accusing the Salafists of running a training camp for foreign fighters. Fighting continued into 2014, spreading to other areas in the northwest as the Houthis expanded the area under their control with increasing support from Yemen's Shiites. They captured Amran (Omran), N of Sana, in mid-2014. In Apr., 2014, government forces began a new offensive against Al Qaeda–aligned militants in S Yemen; the militants launched a number of attacks in the capital in retaliation.
In August, the Houthis mounted protests around Sana against the government. When a peace deal was signed ending the conflict in September they secured control of the capital and then expanded in October W into Hodeida and, fighting Al Qaeda–aligned Sunni militants, S into central Yemen, but the Sunni militants subsequently mounted a violent retaliatory campaign. The prime minister, whom the Houthis objected to, resigned in September, and after appointment of a new prime minister (Khaled Bahah), they objected to the makeup of the cabinet, which was re-formed in December. They also seized control of a number of ministries. The Houthis received support from Saleh and military forces that continued to support him, and in November the United Nations sanctioned Saleh.
By Feb., 2015, the Houthis had formally seized control of the government, and Hadi, who they had placed under house arrest, had fled to Aden, where he attempted to rally progovernment forces. Houthi and Saleh forces advanced south toward Aden, seizing Taiz (subsequently contested by progovernment forces), and by March the opposing forces were fighting for control of Aden; that month Hadi left Yemen for Saudi Arabia. Also in March, Saudi Arabia and other Arab nations began an air campaign against the Houthis, and there were clashes with the Houthis along the Saudi border. The civil war in W Yemen allowed the Al Qaeda–aligned forces to seize Mukalla, a port on the central Gulf of Aden coast, in April, and that same month the United Nations imposed an arms embargo on the Houthis and their military allies. Progovernment forces and allied Saudi-led coalition forces subsequently cleared Aden (but at least initially did not effectively reestablish order there), regained much of the south, and began an advance toward the capital. Attempts to establish a cease-fire
Copyright (c) 2012 Columbia University Press.
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- Ancient Inscriptions The results of the archaeological survey of the direct environs of the Himyarite capital Baynun
- Tareem Centre for archiving of cultural traditions and mud buildings
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- Art of Yemen Amazing paintings from Local Yemeni Artists from Hodeidah
- Nizar Mezhar Paintings of people and places of Yemen
- Der Jemen Picture Gallery
- Arab Film Distribution - Yemen Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
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- Al-Arabia Al-Saeeda Yemenis in Canada and USA
- Le Cercle Franco Yemenite To promote friendship and understanding between the peoples of the two countries
- Egyption Culture Center Sanaa
- Urban Cultural Heritage Program To boost and to guide the revitalisation process of historic cities in the country
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Women Organizations, Societies, Affairs....
- Al-Aman Association for Blind Women Protecting the blind from exploitation in all its forms
- Society for the Development of Women & Children SOUL- To achieve a higher quality of life for Yemeni women and children
- Women National Committee Proposes policies, strategies, plans, and programs related to women affairs
- Yemen Women Union Improving Yemeni Women status and her participation in political, social, economic and cultural aspects of life.
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- The American School Typical American curriculum
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- Al-Iman University Sanaa
- Hadhramout University of Science & Technology
- Ibb University
- Queen Arwa University Sanaa
- Sanaa University
- University of Science & Technology Sanaa & Hodeidah
- Yemen Networking Academy Learn about the networks devices by CISCO
Institutions & Organizations
Yemeni Students Association Abroad (YSAA) To help make a change for the better
- American Institute for Yemeni Studies Acting as an information exchange
- Center for Arabic Language and Eastern Studies (CALES) Center for teaching Arabic language and Yemeni culture for Non-native speakers
- Modern American Language Institute
- Modern American Language Institute (Faster loading)
- The Supreme Institute of Justice
- Yemeni Consultant House
Training and qualification in management, accounting, industry, oil, tourism, computers science and modern languages
- Yemen Language Center & Yemen Center for Arab Studies Facilitates individual scholars and teams of scholars doing research in Yemen
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- Basic Education Expansion Project To increase enrollment in basic education
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- French Center for Archaeology and Social Sciences Sanaa - the study of the social significance of traditional practices....
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- President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh
- Agricultural Research and Extention Authority (AREA)
- Central Organization for Control and Auditing (COCA) Helps the state authorities perform their functions.
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- Ministry of Oil & Minerals Responsible for the administration, development, and exploitation of Oil, Gas, and Mineral Resources
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- Petroluem Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA) Receiving , collecting and filing ,different information of the technical activities....
- Shoora Council
- Social Fund for Development Seeks to reduce poverty by improving living conditions....
- Supreme Commission for Elections and Referendum To review a number of reports on the votes counting results
- Survey Authority The Government Agency for Mapping and Land Registration
- Tax Authority
- Yemeni National Commission for Education, Culture & Science
Aims to accomplish and develop the co-operation between the various concerned parties
- Embassy of Yemen in Germany Berlin
- Embassy of Yemen in UAE Abu Dhabi
- Embassy of Yemen in UK London
- Embassy of Yemen in USA Washington DC
- Yemen Mission to the UN
Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities
- Al-Thawra Industrial Complex
- Yemen Company For Ghee & Soap Industry Ghee & edible oil, along with soap and detergents
- Y.Net The main ISP of Yemen
- Yemen.Net ISP provider
- Yemen Post Stamp shop, money orders, bills online....
Centers, Institutions, Societies....
- Accounting Financial Management Information System (AFMIS) Developing an accounting and financial management information system
- Al-Qabaitah Province Charitable Cooperation Society
To improve the economic, social, cultural, health and education status of all citizen in the province
- Charitable Society for Social Welfare
- General Center for Studies, Research & Publishing Studying national issues undertaking scientific, political and cultural tasks
- General Council of Trade Unions
- British Council To promote and strengthen Yemen's institutional and social development through partnership
- French Embassy Sanaa - Consular section
- Indian Embassy Sanaa
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- Al-Nasim Travel & Tourism Serve the domestic and international market
- Future Tours Industries A wakeup call to a world of incomparable dreams & non-stop wonders
- Life Change Tours Tourism in Yemen, Diving in the Red Sea, adventurous hiking tours....
- Voyages Au Yemen Promoting real meetings and interaction between visitors and local communities
- Yemen Explorers About Yemen, travel hints, places of interest, pictures, hotels, adventure tours, diving tours, trekking tours....
- Yemen Old Splendour Tours A choice of outstanding places of antiquities and history
- Yemen Tourism Be ready to be astounded....
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