The Country & People of Palestine
We want peace but we do not want this peace process
A lasting peace is one which is just and fair for all
and as long as Israel is enforcing peace their way
the Palestinians have to fight for theirs
Israel's peace process is Surrender or War
Palestinian's peace process is UN Resolutions 194, 242, 338....
Why does the USA strictly implement UN resolutions everywhere except where Israel is concerned?
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Palestine, historic region on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, at various times comprising parts of modern Israel, the West Bank and Gaza (recognized internationally by nations as independent Palestine), Jordan, and Egypt; also known as the Holy Land. The name is derived from a word meaning land of the Philistines. This article discusses mainly the geography and the history of Palestine until the United Nations took up the Palestine problem in 1947.
In the Bible, Palestine is called Canaan before the invasion of Joshua; the usual Hebrew name is Eretz Israel [land of Israel]. Palestine is the Holy Land of Jews, having been promised to them by God according to the Bible; of Christians because it was the scene of Jesus' life; and of Muslims because they consider Islam to be the heir of Judaism and Christianity and because Jerusalem is the site, according to Muslim tradition, of Muhammad's ascent to heaven. The Holy Land derives its special character from being a place of pilgrimage. Shrines, shared in common by several religions, cluster most numerously in and about Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Hebron.
The earliest known inhabitants of Palestine were of the same group as the Neanderthal inhabitants of Europe. By the 4th millennium BC Palestine was inhabited by herders and farmers. It was in the 3d millennium that most of the towns known in historical times came into existence. They became centers of trade for Egyptian and Babylonian goods. During the 2d millennium, Palestine was ruled by the Hyksos and by the Egyptians. Toward the end of this period Moses led the Hebrew people out of Egypt, across the Sinai, and into Palestine.
Around 1200 BC, the Philistines (Sea Peoples) invaded the southern coastland and established a powerful kingdom. The Hebrews were subject to the Philistines until c.1000 BC, when an independent Hebrew kingdom was established under Saul , who was succeeded by David and then by Solomon . After the expansionist reign of Solomon (c.950 BC), the kingdom broke up into two states, Israel, with its capital at Samaria, and Judah, under the house of David, with its capital at Jerusalem. The two kingdoms were later conquered by expanding Mesopotamian states, Israel by Assyria (c.720 BC) and Judah by Babylonia (586 BC).
In 539 BC the Persians conquered the Babylonians. The Jewish Temple, destroyed by the Babylonians, was rebuilt (516 BC). Under Persian rule Palestine enjoyed considerable autonomy. Alexander the Great of Macedon, conquered Palestine in 333 BC His successors, the Ptolemies and Seleucids, contested for Palestine. The attempt of the Seleucid Antiochus IV (Antiochus Epiphanes) to impose Hellenism brought a Jewish revolt under the Maccabees , who set up a new Jewish state in 142 BC The state lasted until 63 BC, when Pompey conquered Palestine for Rome.
Palestine at the time of Jesus was ruled by puppet kings of the Romans, the Herods. When the Jews revolted in AD 66, the Romans destroyed the Temple (AD 70). Another revolt between AD 132 and 135 was also suppressed, Jericho and Bethlehem were destroyed, and the Jews were barred from Jerusalem. When Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity (312), Palestine became a center of Christian pilgrimage, and many Jews left the region. Palestine over the next few centuries generally enjoyed peace and prosperity until it was conquered in 614 by the Persians. It was recovered briefly by the Byzantine Romans, but fell to the Muslim Arabs under caliph Omar by the year 640.
At this time (during the Umayyad rule), the importance of Palestine as a holy place for Muslims was emphasized, and in 691 the Dome of the Rock was erected on the site of the Temple of Solomon, which is claimed by Muslims to have been the halting station of Muhammad on his journey to heaven. Close to the Dome, the Aqsa mosque was built. In 750, Palestine passed to the Abbasid caliphate, and this period was marked by unrest between factions that favored the Umayyads and those who preferred the new rulers.
In the 9th cent., Palestine was conquered by the Fatimid dynasty, which had risen to power in North Africa. The Fatimids had many enemies—the Seljuks, Karmatians, Byzantines, and Bedouins—and Palestine became a battlefield. Under the Fatimid caliph al Hakim (996–1021), the Christians and Jews were harshly suppressed, and many churches were destroyed. In 1099, Palestine was captured by the Crusaders (see Crusades ), who established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Crusaders were defeated by Saladin at the battle of Hittin (1187), and the Latin Kingdom was ended; they were finally driven out of Palestine by the Mamluks in 1291. Under Mamluk rule Palestine declined.
In 1516 the Mamluks were defeated by the Ottoman Turks. The first three centuries of Ottoman rule isolated Palestine from outside influence. In 1831, Muhammad Ali, the Egyptian viceroy nominally subject to the Ottoman sultan, occupied Palestine. Under him and his son the region was opened to European influence. Ottoman control was reasserted in 1840, but Western influence continued. Among the many European settlements established, the most significant in the long run were those of Jews, Russian Jews being the first to come (1882).
In the late 19th cent. the Zionist movement was founded with the goal of establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and dozens of Zionist colonies were founded there. At the start of the Zionist colonization of Palestine in the late 19th cent., the rural people were Arab peasants (fellahin). Most of the population were Muslims, but in the urban areas there were sizable groups of Arab Christians (at Nazareth, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem) and of Jews (at Zefat, Tiberias, Jerusalem, Jericho, and Hebron).
At the same time Arab nationalism was developing in the Middle East in opposition to Turkish rule. In World War I the British, with Arab aid, gained control of Palestine. In the Balfour Declaration (1917) the British promised Zionist leaders to aid the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, with due regard for the rights of non-Jewish Palestinians. However, the British had also promised Arab leaders to support the creation of independent Arab states. The Arabs believed Palestine was to be among these, an intention that the British later denied.
In 1919 there were about 568,000 Muslims, 74,000 Christians, and 58,000 Jews in Palestine. The first Arab anti-Zionist riots occurred in Palestine in 1920. The League of Nations approved the British mandate in 1922, although the actual administration of the area had begun in 1920. As part of the mandate Britain was given the responsibility for aiding the Jewish homeland and fostering Jewish immigration there. The British stressed that their policy to aid the homeland did not include making all Palestine the homeland, but rather that such a home should exist within Palestine and that there were economic limits on how many immigrants should be admitted (1922 White Paper).
In the 1920s, Jewish immigration was slight, but the Jewish communities made great economic progress. In 1929 there was serious Jewish-Arab violence occasioned by a clash at the Western, or Wailing, Wall in Jerusalem. A British report found that Arabs feared the economic and political consequences of continued Jewish immigration with its attendant land purchases. Zionists were angered when a new White Paper (1930) urged limiting immigration, but they were placated by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald (1931).
The rise of Nazism in Europe during the 1930s led to a great increase in immigration. Whereas there were about 5,000 immigrants authorized in 1932, about 62,000 were authorized in 1935. Arabs conducted strikes and boycotts; a general strike in 1936, organized by Haj Amin al Husayni, mufti of Jerusalem, lasted six months. Some Arabs acquired weapons and formed a guerrilla force. The Peel commission (1937), finding British promises to Zionists and Arabs irreconcilable, declared the mandate unworkable and recommended the partition of Palestine into Jewish, Arab, and British (largely the holy places) mandatory states. The Zionists reluctantly approved partition, but the Arabs rejected it, objecting particularly to the proposal that the Arab population be forcibly transferred out of the proposed Jewish state.
The British dropped the partition idea and announced a new policy (1939 White Paper). Fifteen thousand Jews a year would be allowed to immigrate for the next five years, after which Jewish immigration would be subject to Arab acquiescence; Jewish land purchases were to be restricted; and within 10 years an independent, binational Palestine would be established. The Zionists were shocked by what they considered a betrayal of the Balfour Declaration. The Arabs also rejected the plan, demanding instead the immediate creation of an Arab Palestine, the prohibition of further immigration, and a review of the status of all Jewish immigrants since 1918.
The outbreak of World War II prevented the implementation of the plan, except for the restriction on land transfers. The Zionists and most Arabs supported Britain in the war (although Haj Amin al Husayni was in Germany and negotiated Palestine's future with Hitler), but tension inside Palestine increased. The Haganah, a secret armed group organized by the Jewish Agency, and the Irgun and the Stern Gang, terrorist groups, were active. British officials were killed by the terrorists. The horrible plight of European Jewry led influential forces in the United States to lobby for support of an independent Jewish state, and President Truman requested that Britain permit the admission of 100,000 Jews. Illegal immigration, often involving survivors of Hitler's death camps, took place on a large scale. The independent Arab states organized the Arab League to exert internationally what pressure they could against the Zionists.
An Anglo-American commission recommended (1946) that Britain continue administering Palestine, rescind the land-transfer restrictions, and admit 100,000 Jews, and that the underground Jewish armed groups be disbanded. A plan for autonomy for Jews and Arabs within Palestine was discussed at a London conference (1947) of British, Arabs, and Zionists, but no agreement could be reached. The British, declaring their mandate unworkable and despairing of finding a solution, turned the Palestine problem over to the United Nations (Feb., 1947). At that time there were about 1,091,000 Muslims, 614,000 Jews, and 146,000 Christians in Palestine.
The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine devised a plan to divide Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and a small internationally administered zone including Jerusalem, and the General Assembly adopted the recommendations on Nov. 29, 1947. The Jews accepted the plan; the Arabs rejected it. As the British began to withdraw early in 1948, Arabs and Jews prepared for war.
On May 14, 1948, when the British high commissioner for Palestine departed, the state of Israel was proclaimed at Tel Aviv. Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq invaded Israel, as most Palestinian Arabs were driven from Jewish territory. By the time armistice agreements were reached (Jan., 1949), Israel had increased its holdings by about one-half. Jordan annexed the Arab-held area adjoining its territory, and Egypt occupied the coastal Gaza Strip in the southwest.
On June 5, 1967, Israel struck against Egypt and Syria; Jordan subsequently attacked Israel. In six days, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of E Jerusalem (both under Jordanian rule), thereby giving the conflict the name of the Six-Day War. Israel unified the Arab and Israeli sectors of Jerusalem, and Arab guerrillas stepped up their incursions, operating largely from Jordan.
In Dec., 1987, a popular Palestinian uprising (Intifada) began against Israeli rule in the occupied territories. Peace talks between Israel, Syria, Lebanon, and a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation began in Aug., 1991. Rioting and clashes with Israeli troops continued into the 1990s. An accord between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), reached in 1993 after secret negotiations, led to the establishment of the PA and limited self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in mid-1994. Agreements providing for a transfer of control to Palestinians in the West Bank town of Jericho and the Gaza Strip, and then in the other West Bank cities and towns (except East Jerusalem), were finalized in 1994 and 1995 and largely implemented by early 1996. In Mar., 1996, Israel sealed off many towns in the West Bank following a series of suicide bombings inside Israel. Most of Hebron was handed over to the Palestinians in 1997 and, in a 1998 accord, Israel agreed to withdraw from additional West Bank territory. Despite Israeli military incursions into Palestinian territory and attacks on Palestinian authorities and forces, Palestinian attacks on Israelis in Israel and the occupied territories did not end, and in 2002 Sharon's government ordered the reoccupation of West Bank towns in a new attempt to stop those attacks.
Israel's construction of a security barrier in the West Bank became an international issue in 2003. It was begun in 2002 in the N West Bank, where it paralleled the border, and around Jerusalem, but its planned extension south and into the West Bank to protect Israeli settlements brought widespread condemnation because of West Bank territory it would enclosed and the many Palestinians whose lives would be disrupted. An International Court of Justice opinion (2004), requested by the UN General Assembly, termed barrier illegal, in part because it enclosed Palestinian territory. Israeli court decisions several times ordered the wall partially rerouted because of the hardship it would cause.
The Israeli group Peace Now asserted in November that, according to government documents, nearly 40% (and perhaps more) of the land on which Israel's West Bank settlements were built was privately owned Palestinian land, in violation of Israeli law. More current information given by the government to the group in Mar., 2007, indicated that private land made up more than 30% of the settlements but did not indicate how much was Palestinian-owned (the vast bulk of the private land in the first set of documents was Palestinian).
In Jan., 2004, Israeli Prime Minister Sharon announced a plan for the withdrawal of all Israeli settlers and troops from the Gaza Strip, and it was subsequently adopted by his government. The settlements were evacuated in Aug., 2005, and Israeli forces withdrew the following month. The Strip threatened to descend into anarchic violence after the withdrawal, with the Palestinian Authority unable to exert effective control over the territory. The Gaza Strip also continued to be a source of attacks against Israel and suffer retaliatory Israeli attacks. These escalated into open warfare in June, 2006, after Hamas guerrillas captured an Israeli soldier and Israel invaded the Gaza Strip, and in the following months Israel continued to mount operations into the territory.
The situation in Gaza became economically dire as a result of continual conflict (some of it between Hamas and Al Fatah) and the restricted funding available to the Palestinian Authority. In June, 2007, the fighting between Palestinians ended with Al Fatah's defeat, placing the Gaza Strip under Hamas's control. The region nonetheless continued to be the scene of intra-Palestinian conflict, and Israel subsequently restricted the flow of goods into Gaza to humanitarian aid.
Mahmoud Abbas was elected president in 2005 after Arafat's death. He and Israeli Prime Minister Sharon subsequently agreed to a truce, and in Mar., 2005, Israeli forces began handing over control of Jericho and other West Bank towns to the PA. Subsequent violence, however, halted and reversed the process. A few Israeli settlements in the N West Bank were evacuated in 2005 in conjunction with the Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, but the number of Israeli settlers continued to increase.
The takeover of the Gaza Strip by Hamas forces in June, 2007 led to increased talks with the Palestinian Authority and other moves designed to strengthen President Abbas, as well as Israeli restrictions on cross-border trade into the Gaza Strip. In early 2008, in response to Hamas rocket attacks, Israel tightened its blockade of goods into the Gaza Strip, but that move and Israeli retaliatory attacks failed to stop the rocket attacks. In June, 2008, a six-month cease-fire was established with Israel that included a partial reopening of the border. The cease-fire largely held until a significant outbreak of fighting in Nov., 2008, and was officially ended the next month. Late in Dec., 2008, Israel mounted an offensive against Hamas, with ground operations in Jan., 2009. Some 1,300 persons, about half of whom were civilians, died in the Gaza Strip before Israel and Hamas separately declared cease-fires in mid-January and Israeli forces withdrew; more than 20,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Both sides subsequently were accused of war crimes by international human-rights organizations and a UN fact-finding mission.
By mid-2009, Israel had eased its control over a number of towns while not restoring full PA control. That same year Israel halted new settlement construction for ten months while negotiations occurred; construction subsequently resumed. Israel's continuing approval of new construction in the West Bank led to U.S. criticism in Nov., 2009, that Israel was frustrating peace negotiations. The government subsequently suspended new construction for 10 months, but the exclusion of East Jerusalem from the moratorium and the continuing construction of buildings already begun was denounced by the Palestinians. When the moratorium ended in Sept., 2010, there had been little progress if any in negotiations, and a year later the Palestinian Authority unsuccessfully sought recognition from, and full membership in, the United Nations.
In response to ongoing rocket attacks from region, Israel tightened its blockade of the Gaza Strip in Jan., 2008; the resulting shortages led Hamas to force open the Egyptian border, which had mainly been closed since 2005, for several days. In May, 2010, a Turkish aid convoy challenging the blockade was boarded in international waters in a deadly raid by Israeli forces. The raid, which was widely condemned internationally, focused global attention on the blockade; Egypt subsequently reopened its border crossing, and Israel eased its blockade on imports somewhat.
Sporadic rocket and mortar attacks and Israeli air strikes, as well as minor cross-border incursions, continued. In Nov., 2012, Israeli air strikes, including one that killed the Hamas military chief, sparked the most intense cross-border attacks in four years. After the Palestinian Authority received de facto recognition as an independent state from the UN General Assembly in Dec., 2012, the Israeli government authorized the development of thousands of new settler homes in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
In mid-2013, U.S.-brokered peace talks resumed, but by Apr., 2014, they had essentially collapsed amid increased demands from Israel on retaining areas in the West Bank, Israeli approval for new settlements in the West Bank, a stalled Israeli prisoner release program, and a Palestinian bid for further recognition from UN agencies. A new round of cross-border attacks began in July, 2014, after Israeli blamed Hamas for the murder of three teenage settlers in the West Bank and launched air strikes against the Gaza Strip, leading to a ground offensive by Israel; a cease-fire was established in August. Some 2,200 died in the fighting, the majority Palestinian civilians.
Following the firebombing of a Palestinian home in July, 2015, a series of clashes and of attacks against Israelis erupted in the West Bank and Israel.
Copyright (c) 2012 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.
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Institutions & Organizations
- Enlighten Promote and facilitate the introduction of computer-aided learning centres in the Palestinian refugee camps
- German Academic Exchange Service An organization of all German universities, organizes academic exchange
- Palestinian Physical Society Promotes physics education in the universities and high schools of Palestine
- Palestinian American Society of Engineers PASE - Membership, events, careers, links....
- Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs PASSIA - Academic research and dialogue
- WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....
- Young Scientists Club - Muntada To promote the logical, critical and creative thinking process in young Palestinian minds
Research, Resources & Projects
- Dirasat Studies and scientific research....
- Kenyon Institute
Provides research facilities for anyone working in Jerusalem, Israel or the Palestine Territories. (British School of Archaeology of Jerusalem)
- Jerusalem Quarterly File Scholarly articles on Jerusalem's history and trends currently shaping the city
- Noor Centre for Quran Research & Studies Scholarly articles on Jerusalem's history and trends shaping the city
- Palestinian Refugees Research Net Project devoted to the dissemination of scholarly information on the refugee issue
- Tawjihi Results, statistics, information
* Arab Countries
History, Human Right & Politics
Ancient & Modern....
- ABC News - Newsmakers Yaser Arafat
- Abu Mazen Mahmoud Abbas, Palestine's first Prime Minister - roadmap to peace, solutions, biography....
- Ahmad Al-Shukairy Biography of the man who laid the corner stone for the Palestinian Liberation Organization
- All About Palestine Covering all aspects of Occupied Palestine and the Zionist occupation
- Balfour Declaration Statement issued by the British government in 1917 that lead to the establishment of Israel
- CNN Israeli Palestinian conflict: Two viewpoints; one tragic outcome
- Fertile Crescent Posters, pictures, history, heroes, letters, essays, links....
- HistoryTeacher.Net Arab-Israeli Conflict. Primary source documents, conflict, Israelis, Palestinians....
- Home of History All what you need to know about Palestine....
- Israeli And Palestinian Political Geography Geography, history....
- Jaffa The history of an old Palestinian city
- Cactus48 Origin of the Palestine - Israel Conflict (complete text) and other Palestinian related issues
- On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces Palestine: People & places, administration, history....
- Palestine History of Palestine, information about Palestinian cities, Palestinian people, historical documents....
- Palestine The history of a stolen land Modern & ancient history, UN, Q&A, articles....
- Palestine Remembered Educating the world about towns and villages destroyed in 1948, their inhabitants and history
- September 2000 Reports, latest developments, testimonies, action, martyrs, pictures, media, analysis....
- US Policy Towards Palestine and Israel since 1945 Brief modern history
- University of Indianapolis The Holy Land, the Promised Land and the Land of Israel - Honors history project
- World Statesmen Israel, Jerusalem, Palestinian Authority - Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers....
Civil, Human & Prisoners' Rights....
- Addameer Prisoners Support and Human Rights Association offering support for Palestinian prisoners....
- Al-Haq Concerned with the protection and promotion of the principles of human rights and the rule of law
- Amnesty International 1 Israel and the Occupied Territories
- Amnesty International 2 Stae of Palestine
- Arab Association for Human Rights HRA - Promotes and protects the rights of the Palestinian Arabs in Israel
- Association of Civil Rights in Israel reedom of conscience, expression, human dignity, detention....
- Association of Forty Arab unrecognized villages, achievements, policy of discrimination, projects, publications....
- B'tselem The Israeli Information Centre for Human Rights in The Occupied Territories
- Center for Economic and Social Rights Produce fact sheets and articles on economic and social rights violations in the OPT
- Democracy & Workers' Rights Centre DWRC
To raise international awareness about the prison-like closure of the Gaza Strip
- Freedom & Justice for Samar and Jawad Aims, the case, case update, newsletter, biographies, petition....
- Gaza Students Campaign for Academic Freedom For Gaza students studying in the West Bank, education is a crime
- Hanthala Focus on the human rights aspect, the international law aspect, and aims at educating the world about Palestine
- Human Rights Watch
Israel, Occupied Territories & Palestinian Authority: Human rights developments & report
- Humanitarian Information in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Provide information and alternative commentary on the ongoing developments in the Occupied Territories
- Hussam Khader Parliamentarian illegally detained
- International Solidarity Movement Committed to the principles of nonviolent resistance, joint Palestinian-Israeli-international anti-Wall struggle in the villages
- Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions A non-violent, direct-action group to oppose Israeli demolition of Palestinian houses, settlement expansion, uprooting of fruit and olive trees and more
- Jews Against the Occupation Advocating peace through justice for Palestine and Israel
- Land's Children
Human rights organization concerned with the plight, conditions of the Palestinian political prisoners
- Machsom Watch Politically pluralistic within the context of opposition to the occupation and a commitment to human rights
- Mandela Institute for Human Rights
Organize regular lawyers' and doctors' visits to Palestinian and Arab prisoners in Israeli prisons
- Palestine Solidarity Campaign PSC works to highlight the human rights abuses committed by the Israelis
- Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR) Promote the rule of law in accordance with international standards
- Palestinian Independent Commission for Citizen's Rights PICCR - Newsletter, publications, reports
- Palestinian Rights Programme The needs of the Palestinian people and the priorities identified by the British Government
- Physicians for Human Rights Israel, West Bank & Gaza - Promotes health by protecting human rights
- Solidarity for Palestinian Human Rights Upcoming events, history, gallery, Concordia & McGill universities sites
Action groups, events and activities
- Jews for Justice for Palestinians Lasting peace between Israel and the Palestinians requires justice, mutual recognition and respect
- Kibush 40 Demonstrating against 40 years of occupation
- Middle East Peace A community of peacemakers advancing Middle East peace through interaction, information and inspiration
- Palestine Calendar Keep significant dates of the Palestinian issue alive in the world's mind
- Stop the Wall
Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign aims to Stop the Wall, Dismantle parts already built, Return all lands confiscated for the Wall, and Compensate for all losses
- Badil Resource centre for Palestinian residency and refugee rights
- Rafah Today Special reports, home demolitions, homeless families, deaths & wounded....
- US Committee for Refugees Gaza & West Bank: Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
- US Committee for Refugees Israel: Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
Intifada, Massacres, Memorials....
- Al Aqsa Intifada, appeal, newsletter, anasheed....
- Al Aqsa Intifada Complete resource about the Intifada: News, information, and action alerts
- Deir Yassin Remembered In all over 100 men, women, and children were systematically murdered....
- Gallery of Israeli Massacres Not for the faint hearted !!!!
- IntifadaOnline Brings you the Palestinian side of the story....
- Jenin Refugee Camp UN report, pictures, films, interviews....
- Nakba Testimonies, destroyed villages, chronology, photo gallery, bibliography....
- Sabra and Shatila Massacres Ariel Sharon's crimes against humanity, Zionism....
- September 1996 Memorial Shows the human face behind the statistics of the September 1996 clashes
Political Parties & Groups
- Democratic Front for Peace and Equality News, archives, essays, art, literature, links....
- Movement for One Democratic Secular State Rejecting all forms of racism, gender bias and religious intolerance
- Organization for Democratic Action ODA - Defending the rights of the one million Palestinian community inside Israel.
- Palestine Solidarity Group Believes in the full political, economic, and national liberation for the Palestinian People
- Palestinian People Party Aspires towards achieving liberation, national independence, democracy....
- Hoffman-Info The Israeli holocaust against the Palestinian people
- Tangled Web Zionism, Stalinism and the Holocaust Story, The Consequences, articles and commentary
Related Sites, Articles....
- Arab Institute for Holocaust Research and Education (Al-Karitha) Every aspect of the relations between Arabs and Jews in Israel is affected by the holocaust
- Americans for Middle-Eastern Neutrality (AMEN) Why Americans should continue to die for Israel's crimes
- BBC - In Depth Israel & the Palestinians - Analysis, stories, profiles, documents, links....
- Bitterlemons.org A website that presents Israeli and Palestinian viewpoints on prominent issues of concern
- Central Elections Commission Administration, conducting and supervision of the Presidential and Legislative Elections....
- Constitution Israel & Palestine. Background, history & news
- Edward Said Archive, articles, editorials, interviews, bibliographies, biographies....
- Israel and the United Nations The UN is strongly biased against Israel and opposes its struggle for survival !!!!
- A Personal Diary of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict By Nigel Parry
- Palestinian Intifada, Peace, and Human Rights Links to news and analysis
- Research Guide to the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict News, stories, comments and articles by Robin Miller
- Vermonters for a Just Peace in Palestine/Israel Committed to the principles of self-determination for the Palestinian people
- The Wall of Hate With the construction of the wall, Israel's policy of home demolition has intensified....
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers
- Alternative News Centre A Palestinian-Israeli organization which disseminates information, research and political analysis....
- Akhbar Al-Naqab Bi-Weekly newspaper - Be'r Al-Sabee'
- Al-Ayyam Daily newspaper - Ramallah
- Al-Hayat Al-Jadida Daily newspaper
- Al-Karmel Quarterly magazine - Literature
- Al-Manar Weekly - Political
- Al-Massar Bi-monthly - Political & cultural
- Al-Quds Daily newspaper - Jerusalem
- Al-Quds Al-Arabi Daily newspaper - UK
- Al-Risala Weekly newspaper - Naqab
- Al-Sabah Weekly newspaper
- Al-Sabar Political & cultural - Jaffa
- Dunia Al-Watan Daily newspaper - Gaza
- Falasteen Al-Muslima Monthly
- Fasl Al-Maqal Weekly newspaper
- Pillars A tourist industry magazine published six times a year, including the Palestine Hotel Directory....
OnLine News, Newsletters, News agencies....
- Actv An independent internet TV which broadcast video on civil and social and cultural subjects
- Aklaam A cultural magazine - stories, articles, forums....
- Al-Buraq Daily online news, reports, economy, technology, Arab gateway....
- Al-Bushra Arab American Roman Catholic Community. Plenty of interesting articles & information
- Anbaa.Net Local news for Ramallah, Al-Bireh and Lewaa. Articles, archive, cartoons....
- Arabic Media Internet Network - AMIN Authentic & faithful reproduction of media related materials, journalists, authors, cartoonists homepages....
- Behind The Wall Read the thoughts and feelings of Palestinian teenagers
- Challenge A Jerusalem magazine on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
- Falasteen Electronic Newspaper An educational & literary Monthly magazine
- The Headline Today in Palestine....
- The Holy Land Land profile, history, cities, Jerusalem, gallery....
- International Press Center (IPC) Providing services to local and foreign reporters and journalists....
- Jerusalem I Love You Monthly magazine - culture, articles, pictures, readers mail, links
- Jerusalem Times Internet edition
- Maán News Agency Promoting understanding of the Palestinian situation by strengthening cooperation between local and international media
- Middle East Post Political issues and discussing events that happens in the Middle East generally, and the Israeli - Palestinian conflict specifically
- Occupation Magazine Provide information and alternative commentary on the ongoing developments in the Occupied Territories
- The Other Israel The Newsletter of the Israeli Committee for Israeli-Palestinian Peace
- Our Jerusalem Today's top news stories from Jerusalem, Israel and the Arab World - An Israeli site
- Palis-tine.com To educate individuals who thinks that Palestine doesn't exist.
- Palestine Chronicle Editorials, articles & news from Palestine, the Middle East and beyond....
- Palestine Daily Editorials, articles & news about Palestine from the world media....
- Palestine Free Voice Local news from Palestine, poetry, artm litterature, music, heritage....
- Palestine-Israel Journal Culture, economics, archive, links
- Palestinian Information Center Daily news, political analysys, Palestinian Question, human rights, Zionist terrorism....
- The Palestine Monitor Disseminating messages and unified responses to the press about local developments coming from Palestinian civil society
- Palestine Report Weekly news, analysis and culture
- Palestine News Agency - WAFA News, economy, politics, photos, documents, geography, cities, archives, weather, annual reports....
- RamallahOnLine Opinions, news, petitions/activism, forums, photo gallery....
- This Week in Palestine Articles, events, directory, tourism, statistics, in the limelight....
- Voice of Palestine Latest news, articles, live TV, archives, polls....
- Washington Post Gaza and West Bank News
Radio, TV, Internet....
- BZU Outloud Birzeit University's online radio station
- Pal Tube The Palestinian YouTube
- Radio & TV Amwaj The most popular private radio and TV service in Palestine
- TMFM 97.7 Radio Tariq Al Mahabbeh (Love Lane). Curfew days, special interviews, news, articles, children....
- Voice of Israel
Articles, Reports, Cartoons, Media related sites....
- Ali Abu Nimah's Bitter Pill Uncovering media myths about the Middle East
- Baha Boukhari Cartoon Featuring Abu-Arab, Abu Al-Abed, Arab & international themes....
- Electonic Intifada The war in the media for a representation of the Palestinian point of view....
- Guardian Unlimited Special report - Israel & The Middle East....
- Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) Provides journalists with quick access to information about Palestine and the Palestinians
- Israel-Palestine Watch Provides alternative news and analysis of this conflict....
- Omayya Jouha Cartoons - International, Palestine, Arabic, prisoners....
- Palestine Media Watch Keep an eye on biased and unfair opinion pieces, columns and stories on the Palestinian crisis
- Ray Hanania's Media Oasis Writings, literature, speeches, books, issues....
- Support Palestine Articles & comments....
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, Middle East, North Africa and regional organizations
Government & Organizations....
Government, Ministries, Overseas Missions, Embassies....
- Palestinian National Authority Official PNA website (gov.ps)
- Palestinian National Authority Official PNA website (.net)
- Al-Sakhra Establishment Directorates, researches, technical assistant project, statistics....
- Government Computer Centre The communication hub of the PNA ministries and institutions.
- Health Information Center Palestine, the Ministry, health topics, events, newsletter, photo gallery....
- Ministry of Culture To support and strengthen cultural and artistic values in the Palestinian society
- Ministry of Detainee's Affair's Manage the negotiation file for the indiscriminate and unconditional release of all prisoners in Israeli jails
- Ministry of Education and Higher Education The communication hub of the education institutions, academic programs and their impact....
- Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
- Ministry of Finance Monthly reports, the Minister, key documents, reports, projects....
- Ministry of Finance Monthly reports, the Minister, key documents, reports, projects....
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs Foreign relations, key documents, articles,diplomatic missions, newsletter....
- Ministry of Health Directorates, researches, technical assistant project, statistics....
- Ministry of Information Palestine basic info, who's who at PNA, Jerusalem, Palestinian cause worldwide....
- Ministry of Justice
- Minstry of Local Government Minister's biography, concept of local government, general policy, objectives, duties,structure
- Ministry of NGOs Affairs Coordinating between various Palestinian & international NGOs & governmental institutions
- Ministry of National Economy Developing commercial and economic relations....
- Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs Setting up the systematic mechanisms for the relation between the Legislative and Executive....
- Ministry of Planning To improve the standards of living and the quality of life of Palestinians....
- Ministry of Social Affairs
- Ministry of Telecommunication & Information Technology
- Ministry of Tourism & Antiquities Visit the main cities, events, travel information, directory....
- Ministry of Youth & Sport Organizing the youth and sportive activities inside and outside Palestine....
- National Plan of Action for Palestinian Children To ensure the development, protection, and participation of all children within the Palestinian territories
- Office of the President The Planning Centre - Opinion, abstract, publications
- Office of the Prime Minister of Palestine Speeches, press releases, news & activities....
- Palestine Data Bank Covers all aspects of life in Palestine
- Palestine Media Center A podium for official speech directed to the international public opinion - news, statements, articles, reports, documents....
- Palestine Monetary Authority Encouraging economical development
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) Statistics on demographic, social, economic and environmental trends
- Palestinian Development Plan Provides information on the progress and activities of the PDP
- Palestinian Economic Council for Development & Reconstruction PECDAR - Activity & economic reports....
- Palestinian Energy Authority Providing the citizens of Palestine with reliable electricity at affordable prices
- Palestinian General Delegation Finland
- Palestinian Legislative Council Elections, releases, library, members, committees, laws, international affairs....
- The Palestinian National Commission for Education, Culture and Science Utilization of the recommendation of UNESCO's constitution....
- Palestinian National Information Center A mechanism of gathering, cataloging, categorizing and updating Palestine-related information....
- Permanent Mission of Palestine to the UN Information on important issues related to Palestine and the UN
- The President's Office Statements, meetings, visits, letters, autobiography, current Issues, documents....
- PLO Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD) To follow up on the implementation of the Interim Agreement signed between Israel and the PLO.
United Nations & Foreign....
- Office of the Special Coordinator in the Occupied Territories UNSCO - Support Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles
- United Nations Development Programme PAPP - The Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People
- United Nations Population Fund Focusing on demographic training, maternal and child health care and family planning in the occupied Palestinian territory
- United Nations on the Question of Palestine Overview, resolutiions, UNISPAL, NGOs....
- United Nations Relief & Works Agency UNRWA - Provides services to 3.7 million registered Palestine refugees
- British Council in East Jerusalem Partnership with Palestinian people in the development of their society and institutions
- General Delegation of Palestine to Australia, New Zealand and The Pacific committed to being a positive actor for cooperation and understanding between the people of Palestine and these countries
- UK and The Occupied Palestinian Territories Handles day-to-day relations between the United Kingdom and the Palestinian Authority
- Palestinian NGO Project Assists Palestinian non governmental organizations (World Bank financed project)
- PLO Delegation of Palestine to USA Consular affairs and resources
- US Consulate General- Jerusalem Press office, consular services, travel warning, Mideast peace, journals, articles....
Visit Arab Peace Process for regional issues
- Americans & Palestinians for Peace AMPAL - Supports all peaceful efforts to achieve an independent Palestinian state
- Foundation for Middle East Peace Dedicated to informing Americans about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
- Gush Shalom Who & what, news & updates, publications & archives, links
- Israel/Palestine Centre for Research & Information IPCRI - A joint Palestinian-Israeli public policy think-tank
- Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group Jews and Palestinians Cooperate for Peace
- MidEast Citizen Diplomacy A US based organization dedicated to promoting Jewish-Palestinian reconciliation
- Nobel Prize Internet Archive Yasser Arafat
- Oasis of Peace A cooperative village of Jews and Palestinian Arabs of Israeli citizenship.
- Ta'ayush Arab Jewish Partnership
- Visions of Peace with Justice in Israel/Palestine One in which Jews and Palestinians share the land of Israel/Palestine
Relief Organizations, Charities, Societies....
- Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières Activities, news, press releases....
- Grassroots International The One Million Dollars campaign, current situation in Palestine, Building Democracy Under Occupation....
- Joint Advocacy Initiative Focuses on bringing young people to Palestine to bridge cultural divides and allow them to experience life in Palestine
- Palestine Children's Relief Fund PCRF - Established by concerned people in the US to address the medical and humanitarian crisis facing Palestinian youths
- Palestine Red Crescent Society
Health, social and other humanitarian services for the Palestinian People in the ME
- Palestinian Diaspora Centre SHATAT - Wherever there are Palestinians there exists the Palestinian Diaspora
- Palestinian Diaspora & Refugee Centre SHAML - Facts, figures, photo album, activities, publications, links....
- Saraya Centre for Community Services Serve mainly women and children of Arab Jerusalem
- Union for Good Coalition of charities in support in support of Palestinians in need
- United Palestinian Appeal Profile, programs, fund raising, NGO Links, humanitarian work.... (USA)
- USAID 1 Assistance to West Bank/Gaza....
- USAID 2 Assistance to West Bank/Gaza....
- Yafa Society A society for social development
- Applied Research Institute ARIJ - Promotes self-reliance of Palestinians through greater control over their natural resources
- Euro-Mediterranean Information Society The upgrade and modernisation of local telecommunication infrastructure....
- MA’AN Development Centre To develop training workshops in the areas of marketing and business skills (Ramallah & Gaza)
- Palestine Electric Company/Gaza Power Generating Company The first electric power generation facility in Gaza
- Palestine Standards Institution Accredited testing facilities, calibration services, and certification....
- Palestinian National Internet Naming Authority The Official domain registry for the Palestinian country code....
- Al-Ahli Hospital Patients Friends Society - Improvement of deteriorating health conditions in Hebron Area.
- ArabCare High quality and affordable medical services, continuous education and training for its staff, hospital....
- European Gaza Hospital Accessible to the general population as well as to accident victims - Khan Younis
- Gaza Community Mental Health Programme Help heal the scars of violence and oppression
- Health, Development, Information & Policy Institute HDIP - Improving the status of health care for all Palestinians
- Norwegian Aid Comittee - NORWAC Works with the Palestinian Ministry of Health to develop public health and educational institutions
- Patient's Friends Society & K. Abu-Raya Rehabilitation Centre Vital services offered to the disabled Palestinians - Ramallah
- Union of Palestinian Medical Relief Committees UPMRC - Emphasize prevention, education, community participation....
- World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
Other Palestinian & Arab Based Organizations & Action Groups....
- Arab Thought Forum, Al-Multaqa Identifying critical issues in Palestinian society for analysis and public debate
- Centre for Research and Documentation of Palestinian Society CRDPS - Gather documentation on Palestinian society
- Islamic Association for Palestine Advancing a just, comprehensive, and eternal solution to the cause of Palestine
- Jerusalem Centre for Women Promotes discussion of women's issues and advocate women's rights within Palestine
- Jerusalem Water Undertaking Improve the living and environmental health situation of the population of Ramallah and Al-Bireh
- Jerusalemites Educating and exposing the human dimension of the Palestinian people and their attachment to their land
- Palestine BDS Campaign Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions against Israel Until it Complies with International Law and Universal Principles of Human Rights
- Palestinian Initiative for the Promotion of Global Dialogue & Democracy Miftah - Documents, key issues, facts
- Palestinian Centre for Rapproachement between People The Palestinian question from a Palestinian point of view
- Palestinian Institute for the Study of Democracy Muwatin - Contributes to the process of democratic transformation
- Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel
Majority of Israeli intellectuals and academics contribute directly to the occupation or complicit through their silence
- Palestinian Conflict Resolution Centre WI'AM - to build a democratic and just society (Bethlehem)
- Sabeel - Liberation Theology Centre Promotes international awareness regarding the identity of Palestinian Christians
- Taawon A Palestinian non-governmental organization that is dedicated to promoting the steadfastness of Palestine and Palestinians
- Women’s Studies Centre WAMEED - Provides field studies on the status and needs of Palestinian women
Other Overseas Based Organizations & Action Groups....
- Al-Awda - Palestine Right To Return Coalition Supports initiatives for action related to Palestinian rights (USA)
- American Committee on Jerusalem Towards just, equitable and lasting solution in Jerusalem....
- American Federation of Ramallah Promote social interaction among members and to cherish common heritage
- American Muslims for Jerusalem To present accurate and timely information to the mass media and other interested parties
- Bethlehem Association A nonprofit, charitable and cultural corporation to help people of the Bethlehem region (USA)
- Christian Peacemaker Teams CPT - an organization committed to reducing violence by "Getting in the Way" (USA)
- DC Palestine Solidarity Works for a just peace between Israelis and Palestinians (USA)
- Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation A group to inform American Christians of the plight of Palestinian Christians....
- Institute for Palestine Studies
Research & Publication Centre - Study of the Arab-Israeli conflict and Palestinian affairs (USA)
- Islamic Research Academy An international platform for the discussion of issues relating to Islamic Jerusalem (UK)
- London School of Economics Students' Union Friends of Palestine Society website
- Palestine Solidarity Campaign Raising awareness on Palestine (UK)
- Palestinian American Congress Assist the community in coordinating and organizing its political, educational, cultural and social affairs
- Remember These Children Call for an end to the killing of children, for a just peace in the region, for a fair resolution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict (USA)
- US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation A diverse coalition working for freedom from occupation and equal rights for all
* Arab Countries
Travel & Tourism
Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
- Gaza Airport Entry conditions, technical Information, services & facilities, flights operate to/from GIA....
Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info
- Alternative Tourism Group Specializing in tours and pilgrimages that include critical examinations of the history, culture, and politics of the Holy Land
- Atic Tours & Travel Holy sites, ancient cities and rich heritage
- Blessed Land Tours & Travel Combining tours with Jordan, Sinai, Egypt and Syria
- Daher Travel Holyland 2000, specialized in tours to the holy land
- Guiding Star Specialised in Christian pilgrimage and multi-country regional tours. Country info, maps, FAQs....
- Holy Land Experience and willingness for a trip to remember
- Holy Land Tourism Guide All the information that a tourist may need in order to plan a stay in the Holy Land
- InfoStar 2000 A highly informative source for the tourist and pilgrim to Bethlehem
- Master Tours Fascination, mystery, wonders, legends, history, civilization, and beauty… this is The Holy Land !!!
- Raha Tours and Travel A range of travel destinations, Palestine, Israel, Jordan and Egypt
- Ramallah OnLine Travel Guide Complete guide: History, climate, hotels, restaurants, galleries, theatres, museums....
- Srouji Tours Ltd. Buses & tours company - Nazareth
- Travel Palestine Palestine's Official Tourism Website
- United Travel - the Holy Land Facts, sites, tours....
- Universal Tourist Agency Holy Land itineraries, info....
- Lonely Palnet Destination Israel & the Palestinians Territories - A great guide
- Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
- World Travel Guide Israel: Accommodation, addresses, business, climate, essentials, resort, social, travel
Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....
- Al-Yasmeen Motel & Souq Nablus - adjacent to Khan Al-Tujar where stores are lively with shoppers
- Alcazar Hotel Jerusalem - from a different point of view
- American Colony Hotel Jerusalem - History, tariffs, reservations, gallery
- Best Eastern Hotel & Resort Ramallah - Close to the main commercial and shopping centres
- Grand Park Hotel Situated on the outskirts of Ramallah in a mountainous location overlooking the Jerusalem hills
- Commodore Hotel Jerusalem The joyful breeze of the Mt. of Olives, the warm hospitality in a pleasant family atmosphere....
- Jerusalem Hotel History, sites....
- Jerusalem Meridian Hotel Work & relax in style
- Jerusalem Panorama Hotel Offers a unique location on a hilltop overlooking the Old City of Jerusalem....
- Mount of Olives Hotel Jerusalem - Famous churches and sites, tours, restaurants....
- Mount Scopus Hotel Jerusalem - Within walking distance of the historical and biblical sites
- Murad Tourist Resort A unique experience for all in the wonderful land of Bethlehem
- Hotels of Palestine Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Gaza, Nablus, Jericho, Ramallah
- Al-Bardauni - Ramallah Restaurant serving traditional dishes. History, services, menu
- Angelo's Pizza in Ramallah
- Askadinya Restaurant & bar in Jerusalem - French / Italian
- Flamingo's Restaurant Bar in Ramallah
Health & Travel Tips
- Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
- Travel Document Systems Israel: Passports, visas, travel documents
- US Consular Information Israel and the Occupied Territories: Visa, health, crime/drug penalties, traffic
- Yahoo Weather Israel. By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....
- Yahoo Weather Palestinian Authority. By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links
Gateways to Palestine
- Al-Fahras + Palestine search engine, directory, news....
- EnglishPAL Find all kinds of events, advertisements, announcements, advice and information that can facilitate in your stay here
- Gaza.Net Web directory, Arabic & English news coverage
- PalestineYellowPages Directory with addresses....
- PalGates Gateway, cities and villages, refugee camps, articles, pictures, statistics....
- PalGuide A guide & directory to Palestinian links with local info
- PalSeek Electronic directory & other information
- Weino Listing by catagories, cities, addresses....
* Arab Countries
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