Arab Countries - Libya

Libya [ Libiyya ] Libya

The Country & People of Libya

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Libya, officially Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahirya, republic (1995 est. pop. 5,248,000), 679,358 sq mi (1,759,540 sq km), N Africa, bordered by Algeria and Tunisia (W), the Mediterranean Sea (N), Egypt and Sudan (E), and Chad and Niger (S). The principal cities are Tripoli (the capital) and Tobruk. Most of Libya is part of the Sahara desert; the population is restricted to a coastal strip along the Mediterranean and a few widely scattered oases in the Libyan desert, in the east, and the Fazzan region, in the south. The discovery of oil in 1958 transformed Libya from a poor agricultural country into one of the world's leading petroleum producers, with vast sums to spend on social, agricultural, and military development. Petroleum accounts for 95% of export earnings and about a third of national income; Libya is also an important producer of natural gas. Major crops include cereals, olives, fruits, dates, and vegetables. Lower oil prices and economic sanctions arising from the Lockerbie incident (see below) hurt the economy in the 1990s. The majority of the inhabitants are Arabs, but there are scattered communities of Berbers and, in the southwest, many of mixed Berber and African descent. There are large numbers of foreign workers in Libya; in 1995 several thousand of them without proper papers were expelled. Islam is the official religion (most Libyans are Sunni Muslims), and Arabic is the official language.

History
At various times in its history the territory that is now Libya was occupied by Carthage, Rome, Arabia, Morocco, Egypt, and Spain. It was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, serving in the 18th cent. as a base for pirates who, in return for immunity, provided large revenues to the local ruler.
Libya was seized by Italy in 1911, but Libyan resistance continued until the 1930s. During World War II, as an Italian colony, it was one of the main battlegrounds of N Africa, passing under an Anglo-French military government when the Axis were defeated in the area in 1943.
In accordance with a UN decision, in 1951 the country became independent as the United Kingdom of Libya, with King Idris I as ruler.
Idris was ousted in 1969 in a coup led by Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, who established an anti-Western dictatorship. British and American bases were closed in 1970, and unification was sought, unsuccessfully, with several other Arab countries. An implacable foe of Israel, Qaddafi used Libya's vast oil wealth to create an extensive social welfare system and to help support the Palestinian guerrilla movement, particularly radical elements.
In 1979 Libya intervened in Uganda to help keep Idi Amin in power, and in 1981 it dispatched troops into neighboring Chad (Libya had occupied the disputed Aozou Strip, in N Chad, in 1973), withdrawing most of them later that year. Qaddafi's forces continued to take sides in Chadian fighting, for a time occupying much of N Chad.
In 1990 the dispute over the Aozou Strip was submitted to the International Court of Justice, which ruled in Chad's favor, and the strip was returned to Chad in 1994.
As a member of OPEC, Libya has been a leading exponent of limiting production and increasing prices of petroleum. Since 1986 Libya has attempted to form a union with the Arabic countries of the Maghreb, especially Algeria and Tunisia.
In the late 1980s the U.S. took action against Libya for its backing of terrorist activities against U.S. citizens, including an air strike (1986) on Qaddafi's residence and other sites in Libya.
In 1992 the UN Security Council accused Libya of supporting state terrorism and called for a ban on air flights and arms sales to it unless suspects in the Lockerbie and another airplane bombing were turned over to the U.S., Britain, and France. Libya's foreign assets were also frozen.
In Apr. 1999, Libya handed over the suspects in the Lockerbie crash to the UN, which lifted its sanctions, but those imposed by the United States remained in place.
In Dec., 1999, Qaddafi pledged not to aid or protect terrorists.
Libya agreed in 2003 to a $2.7 billion settlement with the families of the victims. and that and a revised settlement for viction of the UTA bombing led the UN Security Council to lift the sanctions imposed more than a decade earlier. The last of three payments due under the 2003 agreement, however, was not made until late 2008. In December 2003, after negotiations with the United States and Great Britain, the government renounced the production and use of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons and agreed to submit to unannounced international inspections.
Subsequently (Mar., 2004), Libya acknowledged that it had produced and had stockpiles of chemical weapons. As a result of these events, the United States lifted most sanctions and resumed diplomatic relations with Libya, although it continued to list Libya as a state sponsor of terrorism until mid-2006.
In Sept., 2008, Italy and Libya signed a memorandum under which Italy agreed to pay $5 billion over 20 years as compensation for its three decades of colonial rule in Libya.

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Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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About Libya

General Information Also see Travel
All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life....
ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information....
BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Jamahiriya Information: Culture, history, religion, Qadhafi. Green Book, links....
Libya Connected Information about business, tourism, sports and entertainment
Libya Online Arts, sport, tourism, music, women, literature, history, gallery....
Libya on Focus +Arabic Comprehensively covers various topics as well as issues pertaining to Libya
My Libya Information, food, sport, pictures, panorama images, news, financial, links....
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Libya....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

World Heritage Cities +Francais Espanol Old Town of Ghadames - The spatial configuration of Ghadames is unusual

Flag, Maps, Useful Information....

Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
Ethnologue Languages
Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts
Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags, subdivisions, national emblem....
National Anthem Arabic Words (1951-1969)
World Atlas A brief description, fast facts, flag, landforms, maps, traveller info, weather
World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
World Paper Money Paper currency since 1951

About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
Libya and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
Libyan Investment Provides valuable data and information pretaining to the Libyan Market totally free
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries - OPEC Statistics....
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
Rating Developments Independent credit analyses of banks
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....

Banks

Directories, Job Opportunities

Libya Business Directory Search by Product, ervice, location or company
Yellow Pages Telephone directory

Investment & Promotion....

Libyan Investment Consultants Services, project List, tenders, exhibitions....



About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Art, Culture & Sport

General Resources, Heritage....
The Last Jews of Libya By and for the entire community of Jews of Libya
Leptis Magna A peek into one of Libya's most amazing archeological and historical sites
Libyana Dedicated to Libyan culture

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Khaled Mattawa Poetry and prose
Umm el-Khair Arabic Libyan poet

Achitecture Pictures, Leptis Magna, Sabratha (press Next)
Cities & Landscapes +Deutsch Photo gallery
Libyan Arts, Music & Literature +Arabic Stories, books and articles, poems, photography, paintings, cartoons....
Omar Al-Mukhtar in Arabic Poetry Arabic By Libyan writer Mustafa Saad el-Hayen

Arab Film Distribution - Libya Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports

Music, Song & Dance....

Libya Music Arabic Singers & songs

Nasser Mizdawi biography, discography, photos, in the press - fusion of local Arabic music with European pop

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability

Al-Madina +Arabic Social, Cultural and Sports Club - Triploi

About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Education

Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
Garyounis University +Arabic Benghazi - Serving the nation's need for professionals and research excellence
Omar Al-Mokhtar University Arabic Al-Baidaa

Institutions & Organizations

Society for Libyan Studies

Research, Resources & Projects


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History, Human Right & Politics

Ancient & Modern....
BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
Adam Abdelnabi Sabrah Arabic Libyan Mujahid
A Day to Remember +Arabic 21 February 1973 - an unforgettable terrorist act
The Italian Occupation and the Libyan Resistance Arabic
Lepcis Magna Roman ruins in the Tripolitania region of Libya. Site plan, kids' zone, virtual museum, library....
Libya's Independence P1 Arabic The 50th Anniversary, 24 December, 2001
Libya's Independence P2 Arabic The 50th Anniversary, 24 December, 2001
Mohammed Bou-Najwa el-Mismari Arabic Libyan Mujahid
Political Geography Land and people, economy, government, history....
Sulaiman el-Barouni Arabic Libyan Mujahid
US and Libya Part 1 Before Qadhafi
US and Libya Part 2 Qadhafi era
World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....

Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Amnesty International +Francais Espanol News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Human Rights Watch +Arabic Other languages Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

Al-Mukhtar Arabic Libyan Islamic Group

Related Sites, Articles....

Constitution Background, history & news (1969)
Constitution Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People (1977)

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Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers

Media

Newspapers, Magazines....
Libyan Press Arabic includes the following publications....
Al-Biyt Arabic Weekly home magazine....
Al-Fajr Al-Jadeed Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Fajr Al-Jadeed English Bi-monthly newspaper....
Al-Jamahiria Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Shames Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Zahf Al-Akhder Arabic Daily newspaper....

OnLine News, Newsletters, News Agencies....

Akhbar Libya Arabic News, views and articles....
AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
JANA +Arabic Francais The Jamahiriya News Agency, Libya's official news provider
Libya1 +Arabic News & views
Washington Post Libya - News & references
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

LJBC +Arabic Francais Libyan Jamahiriyah Broadcasting Corporation
Libda Cafe Food, Health & Life Style, Travel & Tourism....

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....

Libyan Cartoon Gallery A selection from Mohamed Zwawi. Social, political, medical & health themes

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Government & Organizations....

Government, Ministries, Overseas Missions, Embassies....
Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1951 (with pictures)

Permanent Mission of Libya to the U.N. +Arabic Lockerbie issue documents, resolutions & U.N. documents, press releases....

Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities

General Electricity Company Of Libya (GECOL) +Arabic Generation, transport and distribution of electric power
Libyan Iron and Steel Company (LISCO) Designed to produce 1,324,000 tons of liquid steel annually
Libya Telecom & Technology +Arabic Communication and information technology

Centers, Institutions, Societies....

National Center for Research and Scientific Studies +Arabic Conducts political, economic and social research

Foreign Entities

British Embassy +Arabic The Embassy offers consular, commercial and visa services to members of the public....

United Nations United Nations Development Programme
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
Afriqiyah Airways Link the African continent. Destinations, timetables, cargo....

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

ABC Libya Offer the classic range of visits to cultural sites and/or desert
Arkno Tours Tourism and cultural trips all around the country....
Azar Travel and Tours Group and individual tours....
Badran Tours Sahara Desert Tours & Adventures
Medusa Libyan Travel & Tourism Offer services for group and individual tours in Libya
Sea Desert Tours Dedicated to maximizing the ease and comfort for travelers both within Libya , Egypt and Sudan
Shati Zuara Travel & Tourism +Francais Italiano Deutsch Expertise in different field of tourism: Sahara Tourism, Archeological Tourism and Cultural Tourism
Temehu Tours Information on Libya, cities & sites, prehistoric art, tours, Zwara
Wadi Tidwa Tours Specialising in overland tours including, Sahara desert adventures, cultural tours, prehistoric art explorations and adventures in the Libyan Sahara
Wesaam Touring Services Visit Libya: trips & tips, what tourist should know....

Adventures of Libya Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
Lonely Planet Travel information, maps, photos, background historical and cultural information
Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
Travel Guide General & travel info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
World Travel Guide Travel information, regions & places....

Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....

Tripoli Apartments A fully furnished luxury self-catering studio apartment that is available for short-term rent at very affordable prices

Libya Hotels Travel Guide Offers hotels and resorts online reservations


Health & Travel Tips
Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....

Weather....

Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....

About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries
Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links

Gateways to Libya

Al-Wasla Arabic Libya web directory

About Libya * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries


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Books

Here is a selection of books, CDs and videos that will eventually cover various subjects related to Libya.
Click on the book title for full details and reviews.

Recommended reading:


Libya's Qaddafi
The Politics of Contradiction

By Mansour O. El-Kikhia
A first-rate objective analysis of the complexities of modern Libyan politics with a special focus on that country's controversial leader, Muammar Qaddafi

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Created 1 November 2000. Last updated 23 February 2011
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