Arab Countries - Lebanon

Lebanese Republic [ Lubnan ] - Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Lubnaniyah

The Country & People of Lebanon

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Lebanon, officially Republic of Lebanon, republic (1995 est. pop. 3,695,000), 4,015 sq mi (10,400 sq km), SW Asia, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea (W), Syria (N, E), and Israel (S). The capital is Beirut. Much of the terrain is mountainous, with two main ranges—the Lebanon in the west and the Anti-Lebanon in the east—paralleling the coast; the fertile Al Biqa valley lies between them. Until the disruption caused by the civil strife of 1975–90, Lebanon had a service-oriented economy, and Beirut, a free port, was the financial and commercial center of the Middle East. Through the 1980s the commercial and industrial life of Lebanon was in severe disarray, but by the early 1990s the economy had begun to revive. Banking, food processing, and the manufacture of textiles and chemicals are now economically important. Principal crops are citrus fruits, vegetables, olives, and tobacco. Remittances from Lebanese working abroad are an important source of foreign exchange. Most Lebanese are Arabs; there is a small Armenian minority. Arabic is the official language, but French and English are also widely spoken. The population is about 70% Muslim (mainly Sunni and Shiite, but there are other groups as well) and 30% Christian (mainly Maronite).

History
The site of the ancient maritime city-state of Phoenicia, the area later fell to successive Middle Eastern powers. Christianity was introduced under the Roman Empire and persisted even after the coming of Islam with the Arab conquest (7th cent.). In the late 11th cent. Lebanese Christians aided the Crusaders in the region. The area came under the Ottoman Turks in the 16th cent., and after the Turkish defeat in World War I it became part of a French mandate known as Greater Lebanon.
Since independence in 1945, Lebanon has been plagued by civil strife and problems with its neighbors. A member of the Arab League, it took little part in the Arab-Israeli Wars that followed Israel's independence in 1948, but the stage was set for future problems when many Palestinians fled Israel and settled in S Lebanon. Meanwhile, Lebanon's internal equilibrium was shaken (1958) by a rebellion against pro-Western policies, and U.S. forces were called in briefly.
In 1975 civil war erupted between leftist Muslims, aided by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and conservative Christians. In 1976 Syrian troops intervened, and a cease-fire was declared, but Israel and the PLO engaged in a sporadic border war in S Lebanon. In 1978, following a limited Israeli invasion, a UN peacekeeping force was placed in S Lebanon. Fighting continued, however, and in 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon, forcing out many members of the PLO and causing widespread devastation. A massacre of Palestinians by Lebanese Christians during the Israeli occupation of Beirut led to worldwide criticism of Israel and the establishment of a multinational peacekeeping force in Beirut.
In Oct. 1983 terrorist bombings killed over 230 U.S. Marines and French troops in their respective compounds, and both nations subsequently withdrew their remaining forces. The Lebanese parliament in 1988 proved unable to elect a successor to the Christian president, Amin Gemayel. Gemayel, on the expiration of his term, appointed a Christian general, Michel Aoun, as interim president, but Muslims challenged his legitimacy. In 1989 Arab governments brokered a peace agreement that produced a new constitution that increased the political power of the Muslim majority.
Elias Hrawi, a Christian, was elected president, but Aoun refused to step down and fighting broke out. In 1990, at Hrawi's request, Syrian troops attacked Aoun's position; Aoun fled to France, ending the civil war. Hrawi signed (1991) a treaty of friendship and cooperation with Syria that essentially guaranteed Syrian domination of Lebanon's foreign relations.
In 1993, 1994, 1996, and 1999 fighting again erupted between Shiite Hezbollah (Party of God) guerrillas and Israel in S Lebanon. Hrawi's presidential term was extended for three years in 1995, as the country continued to recover from years of heavy fighting which had crippled its infrastructure and economy.
Gen. Emile Lahoud was elected president in 1998.
In May 2000, Israel withdrew its troops from S Lebanon. The 2000 parliamentary elections brought the opposition back into power, and Rafiq Hariri became prime minister; he had previously held the office from 1992 to 1998. President Lahoud’s term was extended for three years by constitutional amendment in 2004 at the behest of Syria, which still maintains some 18,000 troops in Lebanon. The blatant meddling in Lebanese affairs caused a governmental crisis in Lebanon, eventually resulting in the resignation of Hariri’s government and the appointment of Omar Karami as prime minister. Karami had served as prime minister from 1990 to 1992. The UN Security Council denounced foreign interference in Lebanese politics and demanded that all foreign forces leave Lebanon.
In Feb., 2005, Hariri was assassinated in a Beirut car bombing, provoking a rash of anti-Syrian demonstrations and leading to increased international pressure on Syria to withdraw, although Hezbollah rallied its supporters in defense of Syria. Syria subsequently agreed to withdraw all its troops, and did so by the end of April. The crisis also led Karami’s government to resign (February), but the president subsequently asked Karami to form a new government, which he proved unable to do. In April, however, Najib Mikati, a pro-Syrian politician who was also responsive to some opposition demands, became prime minister and formed a new government.
Parliamentary elections in May–June resulted in a majority for the anti-Syrian coalition; Fouad Siniora, a former finance minister and an ally of Hariri, became prime minister. The new government moved, albeit cautiously, to reduce Syrian influence in the Lebanese security forces, and arrested several high-ranking security officials associated with the president as suspects in the assassination of Hariri. A UN investigation into the killing meanwhile implicated senior Lebanese and Syrian officials. By the end of 2005, however, a cabinet vote in favor of an international trial of the suspects in Hariri’s murder provoked a split in the government, with Shiite ministers refusing to attend cabinet sessions; the boycott lasted until Feb., 2006. The disarming of the Shiite Hezbollah militia, as demanded by the United Nations, slowed the resolution of the boycott, and the prime minister ultimately acknowledged the group as a “national resistance movement,” but many in the government continued to support disarming Hezbollah.
In July, 2006, Hezbollah forces captured two Israeli soldiers in fighting along the Israeli border, leading Israel to launch air attacks against targets in Beirut, Sidon, Tyre, and many other locales, place a blockade on Lebanon, and send troops into S Lebanon. Hezbollah respond largely by mounting rocket attacks against N Israel, including Haifa and Tiberias, but the its forces also offered resistance to Israeli troops, slowing their advance. A UN-mediated cease-fire took effect in mid-August, and by the beginning of October Israel had essentially withdrawn from Lebanon and ended its blockade. As much as a fifth of the Lebanese population was displaced by the conflict, and Israeli attacks destroyed much of the country’s infrastructure, a setback for the rebuilding that had occurred since the end of the civil war. Tourism and agriculture were among the sectors of the Lebanese economy most severely hurt by the fighting. Amnesty International accused both sides of war crimes in the fighting, mainly because of their attacks on civilians. The Israeli pullout left Hezbollah in position to proclaim its resistance and survival a victory, and emboldened it to insist on a re-formation of the Lebanese government that would give it and its allies a much stronger political position. Hezbollah also continued to resist disarming, as called for by the UN Security Council, and neither were the captured Israeli soldiers released. At the same time, however, the Lebanese army was deployed, albeit not forcefully, throughout S Lebanon for the first time since the civil war; UN peacekeepers were also deployed there. Israel, for its part, continued its military overflights of Lebanon, also despite the UN Security Council.
The political stalemate over the role of Hezbollah and its allies in the government led it and Amal, the other Shiite party in the cabinet, to leave the government, giving the government an interim standing under the Ta’if accord (because Shiites were no longer represented in the cabinet). The move also stalled the government’s approval of an international tribunal to prosecute Hariri’s suspected killers. Hezbollah subsequently mounted demonstrations and strikes calling for the government’s resignation, and their clashes between government and antigovernment partisans at times. The situation continued unsettled and unresolved into 2007, despite talks in March. Assassinations of anti-Syrian members of parliament also continued.
In May–Sept., 2007, there was fierce fighting in a refugee camp near Tripoli between the Lebanese army and Palestinian guerrillas aligned with Syria; a bank robbery by the group provoked the clash. More than 200 people died in the fighting before the government took control of the camp. . Also in May the United Nations approved an international tribunal to try suspects in the Hariri assassination; the tribunal first convened in Mar., 2009, but in April the four Lebanese officers who had been held since 2005 in connection with the case were released for lack of evidence. The political stalemate delayed the election of a successor to President Lahoud, who left office in Nov., 2007.
Although the parties agreed on army chief Michel Suleiman as a presidential candidate by early 2008, disputes over the makeup of the government postponed his election by parliament until May, 2008. The May agreement that led to a new president and cabinet was negotiated in Doha, Qatar, and was finalized only after the government's attempt to ban Hezbollah's private telephone network led Hezbollah to attack its Lebanese opponents in Beirut and elsewhere. After a week of bloody fighting, the government rescinded its ban. A new government, with Siniora as prime minister, was finally established in July, 2008; Hezbollah and its allies received enough cabinet seats to give them veto power over government decisions. In September, an agreement was signed to end sectarian fighting in Tripoli, which had sporadically continued there between Sunnis and Alawites since May. The following month, Syria formally established diplomatic relations with Lebanon for the first time; Syria's previous failure to do so had been seen as a rejection of Lebanese independence.
Parliamentarly elections held in June, 2009, resulted in a victory for the pro-Western Sunni, Druze, and Maronite coalition, led by Hariri's son, Saad. Attempts to form a coalition government proved difficult. In September Saad Hariri stepped down as prime minister designate, but he was renamed to the post, and a national unity government that included Hezbollah and its allies was formed in November.
Syria's influence in the country was again evident in 2010, as Hariri traveled several times to Damascus and, in September, said that he had been wrong to blame Syria for his father's assassination.
In Aug., 2010, Hezbollah asserted that it had evidence implicating Israel in the assassination; the accusation was apparently prompted by information that the tribunal had found indications that some Hezbollah members had been involved.

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Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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About Lebanon

General Information Also see Travel
AME Info Geography, people, government, economy, communication, transportation
ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information...
BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveller's directory
Focus OnLine Lebanon - Capital of the Middle East. General info, regions, tourism, cuisine, music, maps....
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Lebanon Home Page History, cities, regions, industry, attractions, community
Lebanon in a Panoramic View A virtual visit
MidEast.Com Beirut, Baalbeck, Tripoli, Aanjar, Byblos, Sidon, Jeita grotto, Zahle, the Cedars, Beiteddine, Tyre....
MidEastUK Introduction, cities, essentials, services, slide show, map
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Lebanon....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

Ain-Ebel Known as Arousset el Jnoub, the Bride of the South
Ainab Municipality Classified as a tourist village
Alma-El-Chaab +Arabic A southern town in Tyre county on a lovely hill surrounded by valleys and enclaves
Aley +Arabic Francais Aley city, photos, guide, gateway, services....
Amioun Administrative center of the el Koura District. History, archeology, gallery....
Anjar In the middle of the Bekaa valley
Anjar Omayaad ruins in Lebanon
Ankoun +Arabic Information about its geography, social and cultural life
Batroun One of the oldest cities of the world and it's the capital of the Caza....
Bintjbeil +Arabic More than 50% of Bint Jbeil's people have migrated....
Brummana Lebanon's luxury heaven in the mountain
Debel Churches, places, families and photos
Dhour Choueir A village well known for its breathtaking scenery, populous pine trees, four season's weather, and friendly locals
Joun Spread over seven hills at 400-500 meters above sea level overlooking Saida
Kalamoun +Arabic Municipality, phone directory, photo gallery, history
Lwaiza A village in South Lebanon
Miziara Bringing Miziarians together. History, picture gallery....
Mlikh History, photo gallery, places....
North Lebanon Villages & towns....
Saida (Sidon) History, government, entertainment, education, directory....
Tripoli News, history, social, tourism, business, sport, gateway
Tripoli City Past & Present, media
Zahle “The city of Wine and poetry”, the administrative and commercial capital of the Beqaa valley

Flag, Maps, Useful Information....

Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
Ethnologue Languages
Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts and other flags
Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags....
Wine of Lebanon Lebanon is one of the oldest sites of wine production in the world
World Atlas A brief description, fast facts, flag, landforms, maps, traveller info, weather
World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
World Paper Money Paper currency since 1944

About Lebanon * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
Beirut Stock Exchange Markets, listed companies, authorized dealers, bulletins, news....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Beirut To promote all sectors and activities of the private economy in Lebanon
Lebanon and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
US Department of State Country commercial guide 2001 (pdf)
World Bank Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center

Banks

Al-Baraka Bank +Arabic Promote the concept and use of Islamic Banking practice
Allied Business Bank A medium sized bank according to Lebanese standards
Banque Audi All facets of commercial banking, private banking, investment banking and retail banking
Banque du Liban Safeguarding of the currency in order to ensure a basis for sustained social and economic growth
Banque Saradar +Francais Products & services, financial markets, Netbank
Byblos Bank Provider of financial services to small and medium size enterprises

Directories, Job Opportunities

Career Lebanon Online recruiters
First Lebanon +Francais Detailed, accurate and updated information about Lebanese companies. Information about Lebanon
JC Conseil Recruitment & Executive Search....
Made in Lebanon Commercial guide, fairs/exhibitions, industrial directory. Cedar's Land: History, culture, cuisine....

Investment & Promotion....

Association of Lebanese Industrialists Concerted and balanced effort at promoting and developing industry in Lebanon
Investment Development Authority To attract private capital investment in support of national development and reconstruction
Window Arab World Internet advertising in Lebanon
Window Arab World



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Art, Culture & Sport

General Resources, Heritage....
Al-Mashriq - The Levant Cultural riches & gateway
Beiteddine Festival Welcomes the most talented and renowned international artists
Nisrin Food, photos, general information
Tyre Festival Encourage talents in various cultural domains

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Ameen Rihani Founder of the Arab American literature. Biography and works....
Gibran Khalil Gibran Works, art, museum. Bsharri, biography....
Joseph Matar +Francais Lebanon Art - Home of the artist painter
Mariam Hallab Painter
Marina Kharma Painter. Biography, gallery, info.... Closer Observation of Nature
Tarek Atrissi Graphic designer

Galerie Manon Works of various painters & sculptors
One Fine Art +Arabic Francais Painters, sculptors, photographers, conceptual art, poets - Biographies and works

Arab Film Distribution - Lebanon Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports

Music, Song & Dance....

Al-Mashriq - The Levant Famous artists. Biography, music, songs, films, discography
Amin Sultan One of the most talented Middle Eastern singers in the United States
Darine Hadchiti Profile, library, press, fan club
Farid El-Atrash The king of the lute - An actor, a singer, a composer....
Fairouz Information on Fairouz and the Rahbani brothers
Fairouz +Francais Life, history, achievements, plays, movies, concerts
Nancy Ajram Biography, fans, news, galleries, magazine covers, press releases
Nicola Osta Singer. Archives, photos, posters, MP3....
Setrak Setrakian Composer & Pianist
Ziad Rahbani Theatre, music & songs

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Health, Sporting Entities & Info

Italian Institute of Culture +Italiano Francais To strengthen the cultural ties between Lebanon and Italy
Northen Ohio Lebanese American Association To serve the Lebanese-American community in Ohio through cultural, educational, humanitarion, and social activities

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
BirdLife To determine the priorities for bird conservation in the region

LebaneseDoctors A resource for medical related topics and services....

Al-Ansar Sporting Club Consists of motivated young players with high ambitions
Dive Lebanon The complete guide to Scuba Diving in Lebanon
Nejmeh Sporting Club One of the glorious Football [Soccer] teams in Lebanon

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Education

Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
American Community School An American-style education for Lebanese and international families
Antonine Sisters School To provide quality education, to raise dynamic Christians and to develop responsible citizens
Brummana High School An international day and boarding school of all-round excellence in academics, the arts and sports

Centre International des Sciences Techniques +Francais A private technical institute
Collège des Apôtres Francais La visée educative embrasse la formation spirituelle culturelle, scientifique et sportive de l'élève
Cortbawi's Institution +Francais Aims at constituting a place where thinking and action meet for the revival of the community spirit

American University of Beirut Emphasizes scholarship that enables students to think for themselves
Beirut University The first distance learning academic institution in the Middle East
Beirut Arab University +Arabic Providing opportunities for higher learning to Arab students
Haigazian University Offers quality education at a fair and affordable cost
Lebanese American University It is at the crossroads of many interacting educational systems
Notre Dame University Will meet the immediate and subsequent spiritual, scientific and cultural requirements of our youth
La Sagesse University +Francais The first higher institute of Law
Université Antonine Francais
Université Libanaise Francais Elle est la seule université publique des 24 établissements de l'enseignement supérieur au Liban
Université Saint-Joseph Francais
University of Balamand Committed to raising future generations in the immutable Eastern values....

Institutions & Organizations

Hariri Foundation Its mission is to make education a means for the development of the young in Lebanon
International Education Council +Arabic University Distance Learning & Guiding Programs
Old Scholars Association Brummana High School - Events, history....
Rawdat Al-Fayhaa Alumni Association To provide a way of communication between the Alumni club and its members

Research, Resources & Projects

National Council for Scientific Research Assigned with the initiation and support of scientific research programs and activities

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History, Human Right & Politics

Ancient & Modern....
BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
People of Lebanon Inform on a number of issues, including the modern history of Lebanon, humanitarian issues, politics, war crimes and international law
Political Geography Land and people, economy, government, history....
Rafik Hariri +Arabic Late Prime Minister of Lebanon - Biography, family, initiatives, accomplishments, cabinet statements, statesmanship....
World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....

Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Amnesty International +Francais Espanol News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Human Rights Watch +Arabic Other languages Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

Campaign for Good Governance in Lebanon To expose the corruption and other ills befalling the government and society....
Free Patriotic Movement +Arabic Francais Espanol Portuguese Official website
Lebanese Democratic Movement Towards a new advanced society, and a more developed state
Lebanese Forces Party To resist foreign occupation and the concerted effort to destroy all that the country has stood for....
Lebanese Maronite League +Arabic Francais To help the community exercise its influence and underscore it's contributions
Lebanese Popular Conference Arabic Kamal Chatila....
National Liberal Party To serve Lebanon by propagating the liberal and democratic principles of Camille Chamoun
Progressive Socialist Party Aims at building the society on democratic bases
US Committee for a Free Lebanon A human rights watch group and a humanitarian activist organization....
World Lebanese Organization Self determination of Lebanon's Christians, human rights and democracy for people in the ME

Related Sites, Articles....

Al-Bushra - Arab American Roman Catholic Community What do you know about Lebanon? Plenty of interesting articles....
Constitution Background, history & news

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Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers

Media

Newspapers, Magazines....
Al-Afkar +Arabic Weekly magazine
Al-Ahed Arabic Weekly newspaper
Al-Akhbar Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Aman Arabic Weekly political magazine
Al-Anwar Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Diyar Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Intiqad +Arabic Weekly political magazine
Al-Kifah Al-Arabi Arabic Weekly magazine
Al-Liwaa Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Markazia Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Mawed Arabic Weekly cultural, social magazine
Al-Mustaqbal Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Nabaa Arabic Weekly magazine
Al-Nahar Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Noujoum Arabic Monthly magazine
Al-Safeer Arabic Daily newspaper
Al-Tamaddon Arabic Weekly political newspaper - Tripoli, Lebanon
Al-Watan Al-Arabi Arabic Weekly magazine
Beirut Times +Arabic Weekly cultural, social and political newspaper (USA)
Femme Magazine Francais Le premier mensuel feminin libanais
L'Orient Le Jour Francais La Journal
La Revue du Liban Francais Hebdomadaire d'informations en ligne du Liban
Magazine Francais L'hebdo qui fait le poids

OnLine News, Newsletters, News Agencies....

Al-Markazia Arabic Central News Agency - Online Arabic Newspaper, covering political, social, economical and local news about Lebanon
Beirut News Totally Dedicated to Lebanon and the internet community
Daily Star Online news....
Lebanese Community News Journal Online Lebanese Newspaper that uplifts Lebanon's image in the U.S. & worldwide
Lebanon-Online Internet magazine. Up to the minute political, business, sports, entertainment, and cultural news....
Lebanon Press Online news
Lebanon Wire Live news....
Monday Morning Weekly political news magazine
National News Agency +Arabic Francais News & archives....
Teckies Online magazine - Computers & internet
TerraNet News, business, sports, health & science, technology, entertainment, offbeat news, travel
Washington Post News & references
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

Al-Manar TV Different , compared to the general visual media in Lebanon
Al-Nour Radio Arabic Live radio, News....
Beirut Nights Radio Best radio in Eurodance, trendy Arabic music, French 80s and other Mediterranean music
Future TV Network Programs, news, debates
Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation (LBC) A general entertainment channel with a core target market being the ‘Lebanese Family
Lebanon Voice Chat, News, Events, Horoscope, eCards, Jokes, Radio, Polls, Lebanon, Gallery....
Murr TV - MTV Local, regional and international news, games, sport, live TV
National Broadcasting Network (NBN) +Arabic Debates on political, social, cultural, business and sports, documentaries and thematic programs
Radio Free Lebanon Live radio....
Radio Nostalgie Liban Francais Programmes, Evenements, Concours, Cinema, Musique, live Radio
Radio One Live radio....
Radio Orient +Arabic Live radio, schedule....
Radio Voix de la Charité Francais Service de l'homme et de la société
Radio Voix du Liban +Arabic AM873, FM93.3

Leb Journalo Arabic The place where every Lebanese has something to say
Lebanon Undernet To provide IRC users with a good place to meet, exchange ideas, and generally have fun

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....


About Lebanon * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, Middle East, North Africa and regional organizations

Government & Organizations....

Government, Ministries, Overseas Missions, Embassies....
Central Administration for Statistics +Arabic Francais Stock-listing the statistics established by several administrations
Central Inspection Board +Arabic Monitor the actions of the public administrative departments....
Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1943 (with pictures)
Civil Service Board +Arabic Administrative reform
Le Conseil Constitutionnel Francais
Court Audit +Arabic Empowered to exercise judicial supervision over the expenditure of public funds
Council for Development and Reconstruction +Arabic Francais Preparing general plan for the country, , implementing projects....
Government of Lebanon +Arabic Francais The Presidency, Rebuild Lebanon, news, ministries....
Internal Security Forces +Arabic Securing the citizens' welfare and the safety of their properties .
Lebanese Armed Forces The main factor of national unity and stability, the shield of the state against potential dangers
Lebanese Parliament +Arabic
Office of the Minister of State for Administrative Reform Optimal and coherent introduction of Institutional Development (rehabilitation and reform) and Information Technology

Ministry of Agriculture Providing the necessary information pertaining to the Lebanese agriculture sector
Ministry of Economy and Trade +Arabic Information to facilitate trade transactions and support export promotion.
Ministry of Environment +Arabic Controlling all forms of pollution, deforestation, protection of fauna and flora, and urbanization....
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants +Arabic
Ministry of Higher Education +Arabic Francais
Ministry of Industry +Arabic
Ministry of Interior and Municipalities Arabic
Ministry of Justice +Arabic Francais
Ministry of Public Health +Arabic
Ministry of Telecomunications +Arabic
Ministry of Tourism Practical & detailed information about all aspects of the country

Embassy of Lebanon - Ottowa, Canada +Arabic Francais Consular, general, tourism, business, news, links....
Embassy of Lebanon - Washington, USA Info, consular affairs, tourism, culture, business, statistics, news, links....
Honorary Consulate of Lebanon in Monaco Francais

Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities

Al-Koura Hospital To offer a service that complies to all international standards of quality in a family surrounding
Chronic Care Centre Treatment and follow-up of childhood chronic diseases
Dar Al-Ajaza Al-Islamia Hospital A charitable human institution offering common medical aid
LebanonHealth A listing of over 16,000 healthcare providers and health related products in Lebanon
Sahel General Hospital Extending services to a population exceeding 700 thousand

Centres, Institutions, Societies....

Al-Mabarrat Charitable Association +Arabic Striving for the sponsoring of the orphan, his upbringing, his education....
Al-Siraj Al-Munir Islamic Association Arabic Teaching Islam through understanding the Quran and Sunnah....
Centre des Archives Nationales Arabic Francais
Community of Maryam & Martha Humanitarian association in Lebanon that caters for women's need for shelter, rehabilitation, and social reintegration
Dar El-Fatwa +Arabic
The Druze Orphanage +Arabic Provides orphans and children of broken homes with lodging, food, clothing and schooling
Friends of the Disabled Association To provide care for persons with mental retardation and other disabilities
Lebanese Centre for Policy Studies +Arabic Research on issues relevant to the political, social, and economic development
Lebanese Red Cross +Arabic Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, universality
Popular Aid Committee +Arabic Francais Medical and social centres in Beirut and all over Lebanon
The Social Welfare Institutions - Dar Al-Aytam +Arabic Concerned with the conditions of orphans

Foreign Entities

Australian Embassy Consular section, trade commission, visa and immigration services, info about Australia....
British Embassy The embassy offers consular, commercial and visa services to members of the public....
French Embassy Francais
German Embassy +Arabic Deutsch Commercial, consular, cultural, press departments....
Italian Embassy +Italiano Consular office, economic, cooperation & commercial office, news, events....
Japanese Embassy Bilateral relations, trade with Japan, grassroots grant, profile of Japan, visa requirements....
Netherlands Embassy Commercial, consular, cultural, tourism, & education sections, Netherlands, links....
US Embassy +Arabic Consular, commercial and public affairs sections, journals, articles....

British Counsil Library and information services, events, news, conferences, learn English
Lebanese American Professional Society Network - LAPSNET Dedicated to the Lebanese professional community abroad
United Nations United Nations Development Programme
USAID Assistance to Lebanon....
USAID Assistance to Lebanon....
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

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Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
Middle East Airlines - MEA Timetable, service info, cedar miles, special offers, fleet, news....
Trans Mediterranean Airways - TMA Round the world all cargo service. Air services linking USA with Middle East

Beirut International Airport Linking Lebanon with the outside world

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

Bookinn Access to hotels, car rentals, restaurants, night clubs and links to information that are of interest....
DiscoverLebanon Explore all aspects of our country whether you are a native or a tourist
Downtown Beirut Tourist information, Beirut map, famous Lebanese, night clubs, bars and pubs, restaurants, hotels, pictures
Ma3loumat Information - Lebanon Handbook
LebGuide Information about Lebanon, a detailed history of the country, a presentation of the main touristic sites, Lebanese cuisine
ProMax Sports +Francais Discover nature while doing sports, sharing cultures, experiences, and having fun
Ski Faraya Mzaar Skiing holidays in the Faraya Mzaar resort - Ouyoune El Siman
Ski-in-Lebanon ski packages, ski lessons, transfers, and hotel accommodation
SkiLeb Skiing & snowboarding in Lebanon. Country profile, history of skiing
Syaha Online +Francais Wining and dining, Hotels, Furnished apartments, Where to go, Travel agencies, Car rentals, Shopping, What's on, Useful Information,,,,
Travel to Lebanon.Com +Francais Travel guide. Tourism, arts & culture, nitelife, business traveller, cuisine, Beaches & Waterparks, festivals, museums....
Travel to Lebanon.Net Hotel Selection, Apartment Rentals, Sight Seeing Tours, City Map....

Lonely Planet Travel information, maps, photos, background historical and cultural information
Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
Travel Guide General & travel info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
Travel Puppy Lebanon travel information & guide
World Travel Guide Accommodation, addresses, business, climate, essentials, resort, social, travel

Hotels & Restaurants....

Acroplis Hotel +Arabic Jounieh bay, includes a guide to Lebanon
Barouk Palace Hotel Shouf region - A resort where guests can enjoy a variety of facilities without having to leave the hotel
Beirut Hotel "Best hotel, best service, best of Beirut"
Beirut Shortstay Hotels, holiday rentals, tour excursions, airport transfers and chauffer driven services
Chtaura Park Hotel Invigorating climate, healthy clear air with pleasant surroundings....
Holiday Suites Hotel & Beach Resort On the water front of the Mediterranean Sea Coast in the bay of Jounieh
M?venpick Hotel & Resort Beirut - Adjacent to the legendary Corniche Promenade
Paradise Residence Hamra - Receptionist, security, room-maid and porters services are available round the clock
Rest House A walking distance from the major shopping centre and the famous ruins of Tyr
Rotana Hotels, Inns & Suites Beirut
Suite Hotel Uniquely positioned on the rising hills of Beirut , with views of the beautiful Mediterranean - Jal El-Dib
White Tower Hotel Ideally located halfway between the city centre of Beirut and the famous area of Kaslik

All Hotels Hotels, description & rates
Hotels Travel Hotels directory & tourist information
Lebanon Hotels Booking at discount rates in Beirut hotels and other lebanese regions
Lebanon Hotels Travel Guide Offers hotels and resorts online reservations
New Steps Travel & Tourism Hotel Reservation in Lebanon, restaurants, nightlife, touristic sites....

Burj Al Hamam - Fawzi "The Art of Lebanese Cuisine" - Restaurant


Health & Travel Tips
Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
US Consular Information Visa, health, crime/drug penalties....

Weather....

Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure
Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....

About Lebanon * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links

Gateways to Lebanon

Discover Lebanon A tourism directory of best Lebanese sites to help you discovering and exploring all aspects of Lebanon
Go-Leb Lebanese Website Directory....
Lebanese White Pages A unique resource that allows to reunite friends, create new relationships....
Lebanon.Com Online resources....
The Lebanon.Com +Francais Lebanon Country Guide, backed by an Art and Science oriented Web Site Directory
Lebanon Links Lebanese web & telephone Directory, travel guide, events, shopping....
LebHost Web sites organized by topic. News....
LebSeek Web sites organized by topic. News....
LebWeb A comprehensive Lebanese Directory, with categorized links to Lebanese sites, updates, resources and more....
LibanSite A comprehensive and human-edited Lebanese Directory
Top Lebanese Sites Categorized links

About Lebanon * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries


For personal pages, private companies & entities, un-categorized and other sites, please visit
Add URL or View Lebanon Links Page

Books

Here is a selection of books, CDs and videos that will eventually cover various subjects related to Lebanon.
Click on the book title for full details and reviews.

Recommended reading:


Lebanon
(Enchantment of the World)

By Terri Willis

Syria & Lebanon
(Lonely Planet)

By Lara Dunston, Terry Carter

Phoenicians
Lebanon's Epic Heritage

By Sanford Holst

From Beirut to Jerusalem
By Thomas L. Friedman

Spoken Lebanese
By Maksoud N. Feghali

For "Learning Arabic" books and CDs, visit Writing & Pronouncing of Arabic names


For more books, music, videos, DVDs, CDs and others visit:
Search:
Keywords:
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Arab Countries - Lebanon

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Created 1 November 2000. Last updated 23 February 2011
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(C)Copyright 2000-2011 Mazen Hejleh, Perth, Western Australia. All rights reserved.