Arab Countries - Algeria

Algeria - Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria. 
Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah - [Al Jaza'ir]

The Country & People of Algeria

Special Arab Files

This page contains links to sites in Algeria and Algeria related sites.
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Algeria, Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. Algerie, officially Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, republic (1995 est. pop. 28,539,000), 919,590 sq mi (2,381,741 sq km), NW Africa, bordered by Mauritania, Morocco, and Western Sahara (W), the Mediterranean Sea (N), Tunisia and Libya (E), and Niger and Mali (S). The principal cities are Algiers (the capital) and Oran. The Atlas Mountains divide northern Algeria into a coastal lowland strip (the Tell) and a semiarid plateau. In the south is the much larger, but arid and sparsely populated, Saharan region; Algeria's highest point, Mt. Tahat (9,541 ft/2,908 m), in the Ahaggar Mts., is located here. About a quarter of Algeria's workforce are farmers, producing cereals, wine, citrus fruits, and cork. Mining and manufacturing, developed since the 1960s, contribute the bulk of the national income. Petroleum is the leading export, and much natural gas is produced, with proven reserves that are among the world's largest. The state plays a leading role in planning the economy and owns many important industrial concerns, but a 1994 law permitted privatization of some state firms.
Algeria is divided into 48 wilayas, or provinces. In addition to the capital, major cities include Annaba, Blida, Constantine, Mostaganem, Oran, Sétif, Sidi-bel-Abbès, Skikda, and Tlemcen. The great majority of Algeria’s inhabitants are of Arab-Berber descent; the Berbers, beginning in the late 7th cent. A.D., adopted the Arabic language and Islam from the small number of Arabs who settled in the country. Relations between Arabic-speaking and Berber-speaking Algerians have been marked by tension since Arabic was made the sole national language (1980); that policy was reversed in 2002, when Tamazight, a Berber tongue, was also recognized as a national language. Also French is widely spoken..

History
The earliest known inhabitants of the region that is now Algeria were Berber-speaking nomads who were settled there by the 2d millennium BC As Numidia, it became (9th cent. BC) a province of Carthage and then (106 BC) of Rome; during the Christian era, St. was bishop at Hippo (now Annaba). With Rome's decline in the 5th cent. AD, Algeria was conquered by the Vandals (430–31), the Byzantine Empire (6th cent.), and finally, in the late 7th and early 8th cent., by the Arabs, whose introduction of Islam profoundly altered the character of the area.
Spain captured the coastal cities in the 15th cent. but was expelled (mid-16th cent.) with the help of the Ottoman Turks, who assumed control. During this period the Algerian coast was a stronghold of pirates and a center of the slave trade. France invaded Algeria in 1830 and declared it a colony in 1848. Europeans began to arrive in large numbers, dominating the government and the economy, and leaving the native Muslim population with scant political or economic power.
A nationalist movement began to develop after World War I, and a war for independence, led by the National Liberation Front (FLN), broke out in 1954. After more than seven years of bitter fighting, in which at least 100,000 Muslim and 10,000 French soldiers were killed, Algeria became independent on July 3, 1962.
Since independence, Algeria has been a prominent nonaligned state and a champion of the movements against white minority rule in Africa. It also has supported the protracted struggle of the Polisario Front for the independence of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) from Morocco. Ahmed Ben Bella, prime minister and then president of Algeria after independence, was deposed by Houari Boumedienne in 1965. After Boumedienne's death (1978), Chadli Benjedid succeeded (1979) him as president. Riots in 1988 led Pres. Benjedid to reduce the role of the state economically and of the FLN politically.
After Islamic fundamentalists won 42% of the seats in the first round of parliamentary elections in Dec. 1991, the army forced Benjedid to resign (1992) and canceled the election. A civilian-led state council was installed, but real power resided with the army. The fundamentalist party was banned and its leaders arrested. Fundamentalists launched a guerrilla insurrection, and Algeria was torn by violence from both sides.
In 1994 Gen. Liamine Zeroual, the defense minister, was appointed president, replacing the state council; he won a presidential election the following year. Zeroual resigned early in 1999 and presidential elections held in Apr., 1999, were won by Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the candidate of the military oligarchy; the opposition candidates had withdrawn before the vote. One of the main guerrilla groups renounced its struggle against the government in June 1999; however, other groups continued to wage war. By mid-1999, 100,000 people had been killed in the violence and repression that began in 1992.
Under an amnesty approved in Sept. 1999, 80% of the Islamic guerrillas surrendered to the government by the mid-Jan. 2000 deadline, and the violence has since greatly diminished. The easing of the fighting has brought such issues as government corruption and widespread poverty and unemployment (estimated at 30%) to the fore.
In addition, in 2001 there were large demonstrations and clashes with police by Berbers, who remained deeply unhappy about Arabic’s status as the sole national language, a policy that was reversed the following year. Berber protests also sparked demonstrations against the country’s stagnant economy by non-Berber Algerians. Parliamentary elections in May, 2002, were boycotted by a number of major opposition parties and many voters, and the FLN won more than half the seats.
French president Jacques Chirac made a state visit to Algeria in Mar., 2003; it was the first such visit since Algerian independence. Two months later a strong earthquake devastated many towns east of the capital, killing more than 2,200 people. The ineffective official response to the disaster led to public outrage and widespread criticism of the government. Late in 2003, tensions between the president and Ali Benflis, the FLN party leader and a former prime minister, led to a split in the government and within the party.
Bouteflika was returned to office in Apr., 2004, in an election that observers called Algeria’s fairest to date, but the vote for Bouteflika (83%) led Benflis, his main opponent, to accuse the government of massive fraud.
In 2005 the government reached an agreement with Berber leaders that promised economic aid and greater recognition of the Berber language and culture, but many of the details were not finalized. Voters approved a government national reconciliation plan that would provide amnesty for many Islamic insurgents and government security forces and compensate the families of persons killed in the insurgency. The plan, which was criticized by human-rights groups for absolving government forces of their involvement in extrajudicial killings, came into effect in 2006. At the same time, Algeria’s remaining Islamic fundamentalist guerrillas, while largely confined to more remote mountain and desert regions, have continued to mount attacks against the government and have sought to expand their influence through training non-Algerian Islamists and recruiting fighters for non-Algerian conflicts from among Muslims in Europe and elsewhere outside Algeria. The main fundamentalist guerrilla group also officially aligned itself with Al Qaeda.
In Dec., 2007, mounted bombings against government and UN buildings in Algiers. Bombings, some of them significant, and other attacks continued into 2009.
The May, 2007, parliamentary elections were won by the FLN-led governing coalition, whose three parties secured nearly two thirds of the seats. Turnout was light, however, with a little more than a third of the voters going to the polls, and some parties boycotted or were banned from the campaign.
In Nov., 2008, parliament ended presidential term limits, enabling Bouteflika to run for a third term in 2009.
In Apr., 2009, the president was reelected with 90% of the vote; although the election was boycotted by some opposition parties, the goverment said there was a 74% turnout.

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Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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About Algeria

General Information Also see Travel
Algerie Francais Mon beau pays perdu!
Algerien Deutsch History, country, population....
All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life
ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information....
BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Algeria....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

Boussemghoun +Francais The Ksar, photos, Other Algerian towns....
Constantine Francais Ou cirta est une ville digne d'être classee parmi les merveilles du monde
Misserghin Francais Vous trouverez ici l'histoire du Village et de ses Habitants
M'Zab +Arabic Francais Architecture, Institutions, Mozabite women, photos....
Tebessa Francais L'antique Theveste, importante ville romaine
World Heritage Cities +Francais Espanol Kasbah of Algiers - A tight network of narrow and tortuous streets and lanes
World Heritage Cities +Francais Espanol MZab Valley - Each of the villages is laid out in a series of concentric circles extending from the mosque to the ramparts
World Monuments Endangered sites: Tipasa ou Parcs Archeologiques

Flag, Maps, Emblems and other information....

Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
Ethnologue Languages
Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts
Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags, subdivisions, national emblem....
Maps on the internet All types of maps from different sources
World Atlas A brief description, fast facts, flag, landforms, maps, traveller info, weather
World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
World Paper Money Paper currency since 1924

About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Algeria and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
Algerian Chamber of Commerce and Industry +Francais Advise on conventions and trade agreements linking Algeria to foreign countrie
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
Business-dz +Francais Market watch, currency, tenders, economic news....
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries - OPEC Statistics....
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
US Department of State Country reports on economic policy and trade practices - 1999
World Bank +Arabic Francais Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center

Banks

Al Baraka Bank of Algeria +Arabic Francais General mission to contribute to the development of the economic activity in Algeria
Arab Banking Corporation +Arabic Francais Offers various customized banking services to professional clients
Banque d'Algerie Francais
Banque Commercial et Industrielle d'Algerie Francais
Union Bank +Francais Investment Banking

Directories, Job Opportunities

Investment & Promotion....

Bejaia Port Francais Enterprise, history, photos....
FINALEP Francais The first capital corporation investment in Algeria



About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Art, Culture & Sport

General resources, Heritage....
Cuisine-DZ Francais La reference de la gastronomie algerienne
Musee National des Antiquites Francais
Musee de Tipasa Francais

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Abou Al-Yakdan Arabic Journalist, scholar, author and poet

Hamidouche Galerie Francais Paintings by Layachi Hamidouche
Mzab Photos +Arabic Francais Mosques, minarets, ramparts and towers
Patio of the Lost Land +Francais Theatre
Paysage Algerie +Francais Deutsch Espanol A beautiful collection of pictures of the cities and the villages of Algeria
Photos of Algeria +Francais Deutsch Italiano Sea, complex, sahara, mountains

Arab Film Distribution - Algeria Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports

Music, Song & Dance....

Abdelkader Saadoun Algerian King of Rai in the UK
Cheb i Sabbah Music, shows, press
Cheb Khaled King of Rai Music - Unofficial website
Rachid Taha Few important things, discography, biography, CDs and/or videos - Unofficial website
Souad Massi A talented and courageous guitarist and vocalist

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info

Sirius Astronomy Association The first Algerian scientific /astronomical /cultural site based in Algeria

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
National Observatory for Environment and Sustainable Development (ONEDD) Francais Establishing and managing networks of observation and measurement of pollution and monitoring , natural environments
Water Resources and Activities +Arabic Francais Water-management initiatives

Federation Algerienne de Football Francais History, administration, meetings, events, results, photographs....
Mouloudia Club +Espanol Football - Oran
Sahara Marathon +Espanol This is your chance to take a week of your life

About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Education

Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
Ecole Militaire Polytechnique Francais
L'Ets SALIM Francais Rouiba
Universite Abou Bekr Belkaid Arabic Francais Tlemcen
Universite d'Alger Arabic Francais
Universite Badji Mokhtar Francais Annaba Graduation in various fields of water sciences and techniques
Universite de Batna Francais
Universite Djillali +Arabic Francais Liabes
Universite de la Formation Continue +Arabic Francais
Universite de Jijel Francais
Universite M'hamed BOUGARA de Boumerdes +Arabic Francais Four Technological faculties including 23 departments
Universite Mentouri +Francais Constantine
Universite de Mostaganem Francais
University of Islamic Sciences Emir Abdelkader +Arabic Train students for an islamic/ scientific education

Centre Nationale de l'Enseignement Professionnel a Distance CNEPD Francais National center distance education of professions
WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....

Institutions & Organizations

Agence Nationale pour le Developpement de la Recherche Universitaire Francais
Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancees Francais
Centre de Recherche en Anthropologie Sociale et Culturelle Francais
Institut de Developpement des Grandes Cultures Francais
Institut de Formation Francais

Research, Resources & Projects

A directory of Algerian experts and competencies in all scientific and technical domains
Research Centre for Scientific & Technical Information Arabic Francais
Universal Clock +Arabic Francais A Universal, luni-solar, semi-centennial calendar model with the week of six days!

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History, Human Right & Politics

Ancient & Modern....
Abdelaziz Bouteflika Francais Le site President de la Republique
BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
Memoires d'Algerie Francais Un lieu de publication de documents historiques, d'archives, et de temoignages sur l'Algerie
Political Geography Land and people, economy, government, history....
World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....

Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Algeria Watch Deutsch Francais
Amnesty International +Francais Espanol News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Human Rights Watch +Arabic Other languages Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

High Islamic Committee Arabic Francais Dealing with social & cultural problems
Mouvement Democratique et Social Francais Le combat contre l'integrisme et son aile armee le terrorisme
Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Democratie Francais Parti politique, biographie du Dr Said Sadi

Related Sites, Articles....

Constitution Background, history & news

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Media

Newspapers, Magazines....
El-Heddaf Arabic Weekly sport newspaper
El-Khabar +Arabic Francais Daily newspaper
El-Moudjahid Francais La revolution par le peuple et pour le peuple
El-Chaab Arabic Daily newspaper
El-Watan Francais Le qoutidien independant
Horizons Francais Qoutidien National D'information
Kabyle Francais Le premier magazine en ligne du peuple kabyle
La Tribune Francais L'autre regard sur l'info....
Le Matin Francais
Le Quotidien d'Oran Francais Edition nationale d'information
Le Soir d'Algerie Francais Qoutidien independant
Liberte Francais Le droit de savoir, le devoir d'informer

OnLine News, Newsletters, News agencies....

Actualite ArabicAgence Algerienne d'Information (AAI) +Francais Agence de presse privee specialisee en information economiques et sociales
Algeria Events Latest news from Algeria, business, sci/tech, sports, economy, national, world news
Algerie Info Francais Presse Algerienne....
Algeria Interface +Francais News, focus, profiles, archives, politics, business....
Algerian News Agency +Arabic Francais Espanol News, week in review, business, magazine....
AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
Sante-Dz Francais Algerian Medical News, health and medicine
Washington Post News & references
Wissal Francais Online news, economy, sport, culture, family....
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

Algerian TV Francais Live TV....

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....


About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

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Government & Organizations, Corporations, Societies....

Government, Ministries, Councils....
Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1962 (with pictures)

Autorite de Regulation de la Poste et des Telecommunications Francais
Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables Francais
Conseil de la Nation Arabic Francais
Court of Auditors Francais In charge of public purses, community territorial and publicly-owned establishments
Economic and Social National Council Francais To evaluate and study all questions relating to the economic and social development....
Institution des Archives Nationales +Arabic Francais
Ministere de l'Amenagement du Territoire et de l'Environnement Francais
Ministere du Commerce Arabic Francais
Ministere de l'Energie et des Mines Francais
Ministere des Finances Arabic Francais
Ministry of Foreign Affairs +Arabic Francais
Ministere de la Formation et de l'Enseignement Professionnels Francais
Ministere de l’Habitat et l’Urbanisme +Arabic Francais
Ministere de la Peche et des Ressources Halieutiques Francais
Ministere des Postes et Telecommunications Francais La Poste
Ministere des Ressources en Eau Francais
Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity +Arabic Francais Aiming at the reduction of the social fracture and a right distribution of the wealth
Ministere de la Solidarite Nationale et de la Famille Francais
Ministere des Transports Francais
National Office of Statistics +Arabic Francais Statistical tables in social and economical topics
National People's Assembly +Arabic Francais Roles and functions, history, constitution
Office National de la Meteorologie Francais
Sante-Algerie Francais Official portal of the Ministry of Health, Population and Hospital Reformation
Services du Chef du Gouvernement Arabic Francais

Algerian Consulate - London, UK Embassy, Visa travel information, Country profile, Algerian citizens affairs....
Embassy of Algeria - Jakarta, Indonisia Information, economy, consular section, news, links....
Embassy of Algeria - Lisbon, Portugal Portuguese
Embassy of Algeria - Ottowa, Canada +Francais Algeria, economy, institutions, consular affairs, media, relations....
Embassy of Algeria - Prague, Czech Republic Ceska Francais
Embassy of Algeria - Seoul, Korea +Korean The information provided will help you get better acquainted with Algeria
Embassy of Algeria - Washington, USA Information, economy, consular section, news, links....
Permanent Mission to UN +Francais Algeria info, its foreign policy and its activities....
Permanent Mission to the United Nations - Geneva Francais

Wilaya de Ain Temouchent Francais

Corporations, Organizations, Industrial Entities and Public Hospitals

Algerian Energy Company +Francais Energy from Synergy
Algiers Harbour Company Francais An indispensable platform for any economic exchange
BATICIM +Francais The Industrialized Steel Structure Constructions Company
National Company of Gold Exploration +Arabic Francais ENOR - Algerian Jointed Stock Company
Port of Bejaia Francais Storage capacity and adaptable to diverse customer needs
Salgetel +Francais Telecommunication products and services
Sonatrach The Algerian oil and gas company

Centers, Institutions, Societies....

Centre National d'Etudes et d'Analyses pour la Planification Francais
Centre National du Registre du Commerce Francais Une institution administrative autonome....
Centre de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques sur les Regions Arides Francais To study better the problems of aridity and desertification....
El-Rassed Arabic Francais Association des Sciences et d'Astronomie

Foreign Entities

Ambassade de Russie, Alger Francais Embassy of Russia, Algiers

United Nations Francais Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le developpement
World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters services
Aigle Azur Francais Schedules, reservation, tarif....
Air Algerie Francais Schedules, agencies, reservation, FAQ....

Algerie Ferries Francais

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

Nat-Dz Francais Adventures in the desert
Sky One Travel +Francais Saint Augustine, Numedia & Roman tours, Sahara, Oasis, Kabylie and World Heritage tours

Adventures of Algeria Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
Lonely Planet Travel information
Travel Guide General & trave info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
World Travel Directory Travel information, regions & places....

Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....

Hilton Algiers Algiers
Hôtel de l'Aéroport Francais 5 minutes from the International Airport "Houari Boumediene"
Sidi Fredj Hotels +Francais Located on a peninsula, in the district of Staoueli, Algiers

All Hotels Hotels, description & rates
Hostels Addresses & location


Health & Travel Tips
Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....

Weather....

Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....

About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links

Gateways to Algeria

Algeria.Com Your guide to Algeria....
AlgeriaInfo Francais Info, gateway & media....
AlgerieSite Francais Algerian related sites
BestAlgeria Francais Gateway....
ElDjazair Francais Gateway....
WebAlgerie Francais Gateway, search, chat, services....
Webguide-Algerie Francais Directory and Guides

About Algeria * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries



Books

Here is a selection of books, CDs and videos that will eventually cover various subjects related to Algeria.
Click on the book title for full details and reviews.

Recommended reading:


Inside Algeria
By Michael von Graffenried (Photographer), Mary-Jane Deeb (Introduction)
A dramatic and original view of daily life in a society wracked by civil war

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